Margaret M Allemang Centre for the History of Nursing
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Description Bulletin Archives Membership





Margaret M. Allemang Centre for Nursing History

Editor: Natalie Riegler, RN, PhD. 3 Dromore Crescent, Willowdale, Ontario, M2R 2H4.
TEL: 416-221-5632 E-MAIL:


BOOK REVIEW: by Carol Helmstadter.

Politics, Policy & Nursing. Anita Fatchett. London: Baillière Tindall, 1994. 135 pp. Paperback. ISBN 0-7020-1791 4.

For those of us who make our living as policy analysts Anita Fatchett's Politics, Policy and Nursing is a welcome and highly useful book. Throughout countries belonging to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) professional nursing is under severe attack, so much so that many of us fear for its survival in our era of a declining standard of living. Fatchett starts with a brief look at the creation of the National Health Service (NHS) immediately after the Second World War but concentrates on the creation of the internal health market in the 1980's and 90's. She describes the disastrous effects which these reforms have had on nursing, and hopes that this book will convince those of us who are committed to nursing that if our profession is to survive we must become more political and establish a power base within the government.

The conceptualization of the internal health market began in the early 1980's when the government asked Roy Griffiths, the Managing Director of a large supermarket chain, to conduct an enquiry into the health care system. For Griffiths, as for the consultants whom Ontario's hospitals and District Health Councils are now hiring, health care was a business, a commercial enterprise like any other. In Griffiths' view, the main problem with the NHS was its failure to recognize that it was big business and as such its purpose was to satisfy consumer choice. The Griffiths Report, published in 1983, identified an unclearly defined management function as the central weakness of the NHS. Griffiths and his team found the old style of managing health care through collaboration between the different health professions inefficient. Responsibility was seldom vested in one person, and reliance on consensus management, they wrote, led to "lowest common denominator decisions, and long delays in the management process." Griffith's cure for this difficulty was to introduce the concept of the general manager, an individual who is not identified by profession but who has tended to be business rather than health care trained.

The Griffiths Report did not consider nursing an important or essential service within the NHS. With the exception of one allusion to manpower levels, the Report made only one reference to nursing or nurses: "If Florence Nightingale were carrying her lamp through the corridors of the NHS today, she would almost certainly be searching for the people in charge." As a result of the Report's recommendations, nursing as such disappeared from hospital to senior managements. The position of matron was deleted precisely as hospitals in Ontario which are embracing patient-focused care designs remove directors of nursing and head nurses, replacing them with information and operations officers who are preferably MBA trained.

In the new NHS District Health Authorities, general practitioners (GPs) and private patients are considered "purchasers." They purchase health care from the "providers," who consist of Health Authority Directly Managed Units, self-governing trusts (examples of the trusts are hospitals, such as Guy's which has now become an autonomous unit, Guy's Hospital Trust), and of course, private practitioners. The theory is that the competitive environment of the purchaser-provider system will stimulate greater efficiency, raise the standards of care, and place the consumer in control. This is the model with which we in Canada have become all too familiar as the same international consultants are hired by our hospitals and health agencies to introduce the patient-focused care system. From the point of view of the nurses working in the newly structured hospitals and health agencies, the Canadian experience has been the same as that in Britain: the care has become less professional, and less patient centred. With the introduction of expensive new Management Information Systems which make it possible to track the costs of each patient down to almost the last penny, the care is really more accurately called patient-cost centred rather than patient-care centred.

Doctors' and nurses' unions, nine Royal Medical Colleges and the Royal College of Nursing all opposed the new internal market concept, but without success. For the health care professionals the issue was, is the consumer really better served by the commercialization of the NHS? Fatchett points out that the real purchasers in the system are not the consumers. Apart from those who are wealthy enough to personally pay for their care, the real purchasers are the general practitioners and the health authorities who decide from which hospital or specialist to purchase service for their patients. The net result has been a fragmented, commercialized and privatized system which destroys the power and authority of health care professionals. And while the language of the reforms has all been couched in terms of health promotion, public health has been largely abandoned. The internal health market uses the GP as the point of entry into the system and concentrates its energies on the hospitals. The parallels to the reforms which the Conservative government seeks to introduce in Ontario by means of Bill 26 are striking.

Manpower figures provide the clearest evidence of the impact of the new internal market on nursing. By 1993 there were 18,000 more managers and office staff in the employ of the NHS while 8,500 nursing jobs had disappeared. In 1995, our own District Health Council in Metro Toronto made a survey of health care system reforms in selected OECD countries and reported that by 1995 11,500 more NHS nurses had lost their jobs, making a total of 20,000 nursing positions gone from the system so far.

Fatchett, who is Senior Lecturer in Nursing at Leeds Metropolitan University, makes her approach clear in her title. She is writing a book about the way government policies have changed the NHS and with it, the nursing profession which constituted approximately half of its employees. She indicates that a two-tier occupation is emerging, a system which favours a few élite nurses who have secured positions as business managers in the system. The great majority of nurses, if they are able to hold on to their job, are being downgraded in pay, security and professional standing. As in Ontario today, the pressure to contain costs, the enthusiasm for an industrial and commercial managerial culture, and the search for cost-effective labour has resulted in cheaper, untrained staff who are taking on much of what used to be skilled nursing work. All of these factors combine to question and, Fatchett would say, to denigrate nursing's expertise, knowledge, and indeed its professionalism.

It has often been said that policy analysis is simply history applied to the present, an empirical exercise which helps us develop more expedient policies for the future. Fatchett's use of the history of the introduction of the internal health care market does this very effectively. Historians may be less satisfied, however, with her explanations of why nursing has succumbed so easily to the attack of the new managerial culture. Her explanations rely on classical sociological analyses of professionalism. She accepts Amitai Etzioni's finding that nurses are only semi-professionals, and Eva Gamarnikow's feminist analysis of why nursing failed to emerge as a full profession. These theorists see nurses as the housewives of medicine, exploited by a society which identifies nursing with mothering. For Gamarnikow the nurse's role in the hospital ward was simply an extension of her role in the domestic sphere.

All of this has been said many times before and contains a great deal of truth. But for those of us who are historians, explanations which hinge on sociological concepts of semi-professionalism and oppression seem inadequate. This analysis lacks the humanistic concern with the individuals who shaped the course of nursing's history. It also begs the essential question of why, when nursing is such an essential part of health care — both from the point of view of health promotion and disease prevention and from the point of view of care for those who are acutely ill — has nursing fared so badly in the development of the new NHS?

When Herodotus, the father of history, set out to write his pathbreaking Histories, he chose the Persian Wars which occurred during his lifetime as his subjects. He spent his whole life researching the background of those epic wars so that future generations, he wrote, could be aware of the astonishing achievements of both the Greek and the Persian people. More particularly, he wanted to find out how these wars happened, and what the causes of the conflict were. His history seems naive to those who are unfamiliar with the dramas and myths which were considered history before Herodotus insisted on the importance of careful research and the use of multiple sources. History has branched out in many different directions since the fifth century B.C., but nevertheless, historians in their search for meaning and causation in history still look closely at those individuals who were leaders in their time asking, as did Herodotus, what was their motivation, what were their capabilities, and what kind of resources did they have. Above all, the historian still looks, as did Herodotus, for those great achievements which have meaning not only in their own time but for posterity.

Fatchett gives us a clear picture of what has happened to the British health care system since the 1980s, and she offers the suggestion that the only way to counterattack its destructive effects on professional nursing is for nurses to become politically active. She does not probe the motivations and values of the individuals who were responsible on the one side for introducing the commercialization of the NHS. On the other hand, while she discusses nursing's ethics and commitments to patient care, she does not examine those nursing leaders who clearly acquiesced in the onslaught against their profession. She devotes a section to the repressive policy of NHS managers when professionals spoke out against the changes, citing cases where people lost their jobs for so doing. But she does not tell us who was responsible for this policy. She only says that nurses are the least likely to speak out because they are the most vulnerable, lacking the authority of the GPs and the seniority of the consultants.

A historian would ask questions such as why was the government so ready to pursue a health policy which health care professionals believed would be so shattering to ethical health care? Why were nursing's leaders willing to accept changes which would lead to a poorer level of nursing care as well as the disappearance of the livelihood of so many nurses? Why did the government find the business people who proposed the new internal health market so much more credible than the health care professionals? And finally, where are the incredible deeds, as Herodotus would have put it, of both protagonists, the consultant-led government and, for Fatchett's purposes, the nurses, which give meaning and importance to what we choose to write about?

These are questions which the historian asks in the search for underlying assumptions, values, beliefs, causes and significance. They are not appropriate to policy analysis, a markedly different exercise. A reading of Politics, Policy and Nursing serves two purposes for those of us who are interested in history. First, the book provides a well researched description of the NHS in the 80's and 90's. Second, it clarifies the difference between the discipline of history with its more far-ranging and humanistic mandate, and the pragmatic practice of policy analysis, the study of courses which governments or groups have adopted in the recent past for the purpose of developing more expedient policy for the future. From the point of view of policy analysis, Fatchett has done an excellent piece of work, one which it would behoove all Canadian nurses to read and consider as Canada appears to be plunging into a similar double-tiered health care system in which the importance of nursing care is devalued.



Canada-Wide Health and Medical Archives Telephone Information Network 1-800-281-4636. This is a national, non-profit reference, advice and communications service provided by the Centre for Research in Information Studies at the University of Toronto and the Hannah Institute for the History of Medicine. It is for users and custodians of health and medicine archives in Canada. CONTACT: Dr. Barbara Craig, Director, Centre for Research in Information Studies, Faculty of Information Studies, University of Toronto, 140 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A1. TEL: 416-978-7093; FAX: 416-971-1399: e-mail: <> or <>.

The Center for Nursing Historical Inquiry, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center. CONTACT: Dr. Barbara Brodie, Director or Dr. Arlene Keeling or Dr. Sylvia Rinker, Associate Directors. McLeod Hall, Charlottesville, VA 22903-3395. TEL: 804-924-2743. (Bulletin (American Association for the History of Nursing (AAHN), no. 50 (Spring 1996): 7).

Center for the Study of the History of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania. CONTACT: Margo Szabunia, Curator, or Dr. Karen Buhler-Wilkerson, Director. 420 Guardian Drive, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6096. TEL: 215-898-4502. (Bulletin (AAHN), no. 50 (Spring 1996): 6).

Historical Gallery, Center for Nursing History, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. CONTACT: Dr. Laurie Glass, Director. School of Nursing, PO Box 413, Milwaukee, WI 53201. TEL: 414-229-4073. (Bulletin (AAHN), no. 50 (Spring 1996): 7).

Lillian Stevenson Nursing Archives Museum. This hospital, medical, and nursing archives museum can be found in St. John's, Newfoundland. Janet Story, former head of the General Hospital School of Nursing is the curator. (History of Nursing News (History of Nursing Professional Practice Group, Registered Nurses' Association of British Columbia (RNABC)), 6 (January 1996): 6).

Margaret M. Allemang Centre for the History of Nursing. CONTACT: Dr. Natalie Riegler, Bulletin Editor. 3 Dromore Crescent, Willowdale, ON, M2R 2H4. TEL: 416-599-1234 (work). (Bulletin (AAHN), no. 51 (Summer 1996): 6).

Midwest Nursing History Resource Center, University of Illinois at Chicago. CONTACT: Dr. Kathleen Hanson, Director, or Mary Whalen, Curator. 845 S. Damen Avenue, Chicago, IL 60612. TEL: 312-996-0740. (Bulletin (AAHN), no. 51 (Summer 1996): 6).

Nursing Archives of the Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University. CONTACT: Helen Sherwin, Nursing Archivist, or Margaret Goostray, Associate Director, Special Collections. 771 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215. TEL: 617-353-3696. (Bulletin (AAHN), no. 50 (Spring 1996): 6).

Royal Victoria Country Park, Hampshire, England. Is the site of Britain's largest military hospital. It was opened in 1863. There is an heritage centre for visitors. (Bulletin (AAHN), no. 50 (Spring 1996): 2).

Southwest Center for Nursing History, School of Nursing, University of Texas, Austin. CONTACT: Dr. Delores Sands, Dean, School of Nursing or Dr. Mabel A. Wandelt, History Center. 1700 Red River, Austin, TX 78701. TEL: 512-471-4910. (Bulletin (AAHN), no. 50 (Spring 1996): 7).

Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library, University of Toronto. This library has 20 letters from Florence Nightingale to Annie Machin, the Nightingale-trained nurse who tried to start a training school at the Montreal General in the 1870s. (Jennifer Wing, "Pieces of History," Registered Nurse Journal (Registered Nurses' Association of Ontario (RNAO) 8 (October/November 1996): 17.

The Toronto Hospital Archives. Its mandate is to aid the administrative staff, commemorate the role of The Toronto Hospital and its predecessors (the Toronto General and Toronto Western Hospitals) in the history of Canadian medicine, and to be an educational resource. CONTACT: Felicity Pope, Curator. (Caring (The Toronto Hospital Staff Newsletter), 7 (7 April 1995): [2]).

The Toronto Hospital Health Sciences Library. This library holds the 15,000 books and 1,200 journals from the former Toronto Academy of Medicine Library. These items date from 1850-1960 and, according to the library, contain titles no other Canadian library has, and are available for use by individuals. CONTACT: Bogusia Trojan, Manager, HealthSearch, 416-340-3259. (Caring 8 (22 November 1996): [1]).

United States Army Center of Military History, Army Nurse Corps Collection. CONTACT: Major C. J. Moore, Army Nurse Corps Historian. 1099 14th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005-3402. TEL: 202-761-5430. (Bulletin (AAHN), no. 50 (Spring 1996): 7).

Wilberforce, Ontario Red Cross Hospital is now a museum under the auspices of the Wilberforce Heritage Guild. The hospital operated from 1922-1963, staffed by a nurse and a housekeeper. Eric Shackleton gave it a nice write-up: "Museums Worth a Look on Forays to Fall Color." Toronto Star 21 September 1996: K18.



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Finlayson, Judith. "Barbara Bromley, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories." Chap. in Against the Current.

Finlayson, Judith. "Arlee Hoyt-McGee, Fredericton, New Brunswick." Chap. in Against the Current.

Finlayson, Judith. "Margaret Drummond Page: Thunder Bay, Ontario." Chap. in Against the Current.

Finlayson, Judith. "Anne Ross, Winnipeg, Manitoba." Chap. in Against the Current.

Finlayson, Judith. "Madeleine Delaney-LeBlanc, Fredericton, New Brunswick." Chap. in Against the Current.

Finlayson, Judith. "Grace Skavinski: Yellowknife, Northwest Territories." Chap. in Against the Current.

Finlayson, Judith. "Sharon Fraser, Halifax, Nova Scotia." Chap. in Against the Current.

Fox, Enid. "An Honourable Calling or a Despised Occupation: Licensed Midwifery and its Relationship to District Nursing in England and Wales Before 1948." Social History of Medicine 6, no. 2 (1993): 237-259. (Fox, 1996: 32).

Fox, Enid. "District Nursing in England and Wales Before the National Health Service: The Neglected Evidence." Medical History 38 (1994): 303-321. (Fox, 1996: 32).

Fox, Enid. "District Nursing Associations and Doctors: Aspects of Interprofessional Relationships, 1902-1914." International History of Nursing Journal 1 (Spring 1996): 18-33.

Friedman, E. "Troubled Past of Invisible Profession." Journal of American Medical Association 264 (1990): 2851-2855, 2858. (Keeling and Ramos, 1995): 34).

Gamarnikow, E. "Nurse or Woman: Gender and Professionalism in Reformed Nursing 1860-1923." In Anthropology and Nursing, ed. Pat Holden and Jenny Littlewood. London: Routledge, 1991. (Hart, 1996:16).

Gerber, Diane Eigsti, and Sandra L. McGuire. "Understanding Contemporary Health and Welfare Services: The Social Security Act of 1935 and the Public Health Service Act of 1944." Nursing Outlook 43 (November/December 1995): 266-272.

Gottlieb, Laurie N. "A Blueprint for the Development of the Profession of Nursing: The Legacy of F. Moyra Allen and Joan Gilchrist." Canadian Journal of Nursing Research 27 (Fall/Automne 1995): 5-7.

Gottlieb, Laurie N. "Esquisse pour le développement de la profession d'infirmière: L'héritage que nous ont laissé F. Moyra Allen et Joan Gilchrist." Canadian Journal of Nursing Research 27 (Fall/Automne 1995): 9-11.

Hall-Long, Bethany A. "Nursing's Past, Present, and Future Political Experiences." N&HC: Perspectives on Community 16 (January/February 1995): 24-28. [Courtesy of Mary Lang].

Hamilton, Diane. "Research and Reform: Community Nursing and the Framingham Tuberculosis Project, 1914-1923." Nursing Research 41 (January/February 1992): 9. (Richardson, 1997: 128).

Hanson, Kathleen S. "I Think You Should Get a Job as a Nurse." Nursing History Review 5 (1997): 71-82.

Hart, Chris. "The Great Divide." International History of Nursing Journal 1 (Spring 1996): 5-17. [Unions and nursing in Britain].

Hektor, Lynne. "Lessons from the Past: Janet Geister 1865-1964." N&HC: Perspectives on Community 16 (January/February 1995): 18-19. [Courtesy of Mary Lang].

Helmstadter, Carol S. "Robert Bentley Todd, St. John's House and the Origins of the Modern Trained Nurse." Bulletin of the History of Medicine 67 (1993): 282-319. (Helmstadter, 1997: 195).

Helmstadter, Carol S. "Nurse Recruitment and Retention in the 19th Century London Teaching Hospitals." International History of Nursing Journal 2 (Autumn 1996): 58-69.

Helmstadter, Carol S. "Doctors and Nurses in the London Teaching Hospitals: Class, Gender, Religion, and Professional Expertise, 1850-1890." Nursing History Review 5 (1997): 161-197.

Hisama, Kay K. "Florence Nightingale's Influence on the Development and Professionalization of Modern Nursing in Japan." Nursing Outlook 44 (November/December): 284-288.

Holmes, Colin A. "Nazism and Nursing: A Comment on Relevance." International History of Nursing Journal 2 (Autumn 1996): 5-24.

Justham, David. "First Aid in the History of Occupational Health Nursing." International History of Nursing Journal 2 (Winter 1996): 59-68.

Keneley, M. "Handmaidens of Medicine: Working Conditions for Nurses in Late Nineteenth Century Victoria." Journal of Australian Studies 22 (1988): 57-68. (Pearson & Taylor, 1996: 43).

Kerr, Janet C., and Pauline Paul. "Visions Realized and Dreams Dashed: Helen Penhale and the First Basic Integrated Baccalaureate Program in Nursing in the West, at the University of Alberta 1952-1956." Canadian Journal of Nursing Research 27 (Fall/Automne 1995): 39-63.

Kersbergen, Anne Liners. "Case Management: A Rich History of Coordinating Care to Control Costs." Nursing Outlook 44 (July/August 1996): 169-172.

Kirby, Stephanie. "The London County Council Nursing Service 1929-48: The Significance of the Nursing Leadership." International History of Nursing Journal 1 (Summer 1996): 34-48.

Kirkwood, Rondalyn A. "Discipline Discrimination and Gender Discrimination: The Case of Nursing in Canadian Universities, 1920-1950." Atlantis 16, no. 2 (1991): 52. (Kerr and Paul, 1995: 63).

Kourkouta, L., and Vassiliki A. Lanara. "Terms Used in Byzantium for Nursing Personnel." International History of Nursing Journal 2 (Autumn 1996): 46-57.

LeGrand, Mary. "Time to Reflect...But Only for a Moment." ORL Head and Neck Nursing 14, no. 3 (Summer 1996): 6-7. (Courtesy of Elizabeth Tausky Wolff).

Low, Marjorie G. "Recollections of VON Nursing in Richmond 1949-1964." History of Nursing News (RNABC), 7 (March 1996): 2-4. [Excerpts].

MacDuff, Brenda. "War Diary Reminiscences: Part Two." International History of Nursing Journal 1 (Spring 1996): 55-60.

MacQueen, Joyce Schroeder. "Battling for a Nursing Culture." [Dr. Edna L. Moore]." Portrait of Leadership series. Registered Nurse Journal (RNAO), 8 (April/May 1996): 7-9.

McIlveen, Kathleen H., and Janice M. Morse. "The Role of Comfort in Nursing Care, 1900-1980." Clinical Nursing Research 4, no. 2 (1995): 127-148. (Sandelowski, 1997: 18).

McPherson, Kathryn. "`The Country is a Stern Nurse': Rural Women, Urban Hospitals and the Creation of a Western Canadian Nursing Work Force, 1920-1940." Prairie Forum 20 (Fall 1995): 175-206. (CCWH Newsletter (Spring 1996): 19.

Mitchell, Duncan. "Learning Disability Nursing in the Post War Period." International History of Nursing Journal 1 (Summer 1996): 20-33.

Morton, Suzanne. "Never Handmaidens: The Victorian Order of Nurses and the Massachusetts-Halifax Health Commission." In Ground Zero: A Reassessment of the 1917 Explosion in Halifax Harbour, ed. Alan Ruffman and Colin D. Howell, 195-205. Halifax: Nimbus Publishing and Gorsebrook Institute, 1994. (CCWH Newsletter (Fall 1996: 23).

Mosley, Marie Oleatha Pitts. "Mabel K. Staupers: A Pioneer in Professional Nursing." N&HC: Perspectives on Community 16 (January/February 1995): 12-17. [Courtesy of Mary Lang].

Mychajlunow, Lorraine, and Sharon Richardson. "Directory of Nursing Archival Resources in Alberta." CCWH Newsletter (Spring 1996): 10-12.

Mychajlunow, Lorraine, and Sharon Richardson. "Répertoire des ressources archivistiques relatives au nursing en Alberta." Bulletin du CCHF (Comité canadien de l'histoire des femmes), (Printemps 1996): 11-13.

Paulson, Esther. "As I Recall..." History of Nursing News (RNABC), 7 (June 1996): 7. [Excerpts of letters to Beth Fitzpatrick, editor].

Pearson, Alan, and Beverly Taylor. "Gender and Nursing in Colonial Victoria, 1840-1870." International History of Nursing Journal 2 (Autumn 1996): 25-45.

Ramos, Mary Carol. "The Johns Hopkins Training School for Nurses: A Tale of Vision, Labor, and Futility." Nursing History Review 5 (1997): 23-48.

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Richardson, Sharon. "Staffing the Hospitals: Edmonton's Nurse Training Programs." In Edmonton: The Life of a City, ed. Bob Hesketh and Frances Swyripa, 135-141, 347-348. Edmonton: NeWest Publishers Limited, 1995. [Courtesy of Sharon].

Richardson, Sharon. "Women's Enterprise: Establishing the Lethbridge Nursing Mission, 1909-1919." Nursing History Review 5 (1997): 105-130.

Richardson, Sharon, and Lorraine Mychajlunow. "Directory of Nursing Archival Resources in Alberta." Newsletter (CAHN/ACHN), 9 (Spring 1996): 1-4.

Robb, Kathleen, "Past, Present and Future of Nursing." International History of Nursing Journal 2 (Autumn 1996): 81-85. [Nursing in Northern Ireland].

Sabin, Linda E. "Unheralded Nurses: Male Care Givers in the Nineteenth-Century South." Nursing History Review 5 (1997): 131-148.

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Schwartz, Sandra L. "SOHN — Twenty Years of Achievement." ORL Head and Neck Nursing 14, no. 3 (Summer 1996): 4-5. (Courtesy of Elizabeth Tausky Wolff).

Sibbald, Barbara J. "VON Celebrates a Century of Caring." Canadian Nurse 92 (October 1996): 18-19.

"Silver Anniversary Marks 50 Years of Nursing Research." Registered Nurse Journal (RNAO), 8 (October/November 1996): 15. [McMaster University School of Nursing celebrates fifty years].

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Steppe, Hilde. "The War and Nursing in Germany." International History of Nursing Journal 1 (Summer 1996): 61-71.

Trollope, Joanna. "`Every Woman is a Nurse': Florence Nightingale." Chap. in Britannia's Daughters: Women of the British Empire. Hutchinson, 1983; reprint, London: Pimlico, 1994.

Twohig, Peter L. "`To Produce an Article We are not Capable at Present of Producing': The Evolution of the Dalhousie University School of Nursing, 1946-1956." Nova Scotia Historical Review 15, No. 2 (1995): 26-41.

Weir, Rosemary I. "The Lecture Notes of Two Pupil Nurses of the Preliminary Training School at Glasgow Royal Infirmary." International History of Nursing Journal 1 (Summer 1996): 49-60.

Whitfield, William. "A Brief Historical Note on the Use of Restraint and Seclusion of the Mentally Disordered." International History of Nursing Journal 2 (Winter 1996): 92-96.

Widerquist, JoAnn G. "Sanitary Reform and Nursing: Edwin Chadwick and Florence Nightingale." Nursing History Review 5 (1997): 149-160.

Williamson, Lori. "Soul Sisters: The St. John and Raynard Nurses in Nineteenth Century London." International History of Nursing Journal 2 (Winter 1996): 33-49.

Willis, Audrey. "Training to Become a Nursing Auxiliary in Wartime." International History of Nursing Journal 2 (Autumn 1996): 77-80.

Willis, Audrey. "A Brand New Beginning." International History of Nursing Journal 2 (Winter 1996): 84-87. [Continuation of her experiences as an auxiliary nurse during WW2].

Wing, Jennifer. "Eunice Dyke — Health Care Pioneer." Part 1. Portrait of Leadership series. Registered Nurse Journal (RNAO), 8 (October/November 1996): 6-8.

Wingender, Nete Balslev. "We are Strongly Individual — and Together We are Even Stronger." International History of Nursing Journal 1 (Summer 1996): 77-87. [The Northern Nurses' Federation in international context].

Wright, David. "The Dregs of Society? Occupational Patterns of Male Asylum Attendants in Victorian England." International History of Nursing Journal 1 (Summer 1996): 5-19.

Young, D. A. B. "Florence Nightingale's Fever." British Medical Journal 311 (23 December 1995): 1711-1714. (History of Nursing News (RNABC), 7 (March 1996): 9).

Zerwekh, J. V. " Public Health Nursing Legacy: Historical Practical Wisdom." Nursing Health Care 13, no. 2 (1992): 84-91. (Kerbergen, 1996, 171).

[Zilm, Glennis]. "History Group Celebrates Five Years." History of Nursing News (RNABC), Special Edition (April 1995): [1].

[Zilm, Glennis]. "Memorial Nursing Portrait Collection." History of Nursing News (RNABC), Special Edition (April 1995): [2-3].

Zilm, Glennis. "Florence Nightingale's Chatelaine." History of Nursing News (RNABC), 7 (March 1996): 9.

Zilm, Glennis. "Visit to Riverview." History of Nursing News (RNABC), 7 (June 1996): 1. [Riverview was formerly the Hospital for the Mind, and then Essondale].

Zilm, Glennis. "Background on Shaughnessy Hospital." History of Nursing News (RNABC), 7 (October 1996): 2.

Zilm, Glennis, and Ethel Warbinek. "Early Tuberculosis Nursing in British Columbia." Canadian Journal of Nursing Research 27 (Fall/Automne 1995): 65-81.

Zilm, Glennis, and Ethel Warbinek. "Health Care Changes in the Early 1900s." British Columbia Historical News 29 (Winter 1995/96): 8-14.



"Pioneering Spirits of Women's College Hospital." City Woman (Toronto), (February 1996): 11. [Short bio's of Lottie M. Slade, WCH'29; Dorothy A. Macham, WCH'32; and Margaret Robins, WCH'47].


Canadian Journal of Nursing Research 27 (Fall/Automne 1995). [This issue focuses on nursing history].

Deroy-Pineau, Françoise. Jeanne Mance: de Langres à Montréal, la passion de songer. Montréal: Bellarmin, 1995. (CCWH Newsletter (Fall 1996: 20).

Donahue, M. Patricia. Nursing: The Finest Art: An Illustrated History. 2nd ed. St. Louis: Mosby, 1996. ISBN 0-8151-2727-8.

Donahue, M. Patricia, ed., "Nursing in Wartime." Caduceus 11, no. 1. Special issue on nursing from the Civil War to Desert Storm. (Bulletin (AAHN), no. 48 (Fall 1995): 9).

Durdin, Joan. They Became Nurses: A History of Nursing in South Australia 1836-1980. Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 1991. (Pearson & Taylor, 1996: 43).

Fink, Carolyn Parnall. On Duty: A Nurse's Notes on Life and Death. New York: Fawcett Gold Medal, 1996. ISBN 0-449-14965-X.

Finlayson, Judith. Against the Current: Canadian Women Talk About Fifty Years of Life on the Job. Toronto: Doubleday Canada Limited, 1995. ISBN 0-385-25543-8. [Includes chapters about individual nurses].

Fox, Enid. Universal Health Care and Self Help: Paying for District Nursing Before the National Health Service. Twentieth Century British History, forthcoming. (Fox, 1996: 32).

Grabowski, Diane. Without Whose Aid: Nursing and the Cleveland Clinic. Cleveland: Cleveland Clinic Foundation, n.d. (Bulletin (AAHN), no. 52 (Fall 1996): 7).

Group, Thetis M., and Joan I. Roberts. Feminism and Nursing. Westport, CT.: Greenwood Publishing Group, n.d. (Bulletin (AAHN), no. 48 (Fall 1995): 9)].

Hafner, Dorinda. I was Never Here and This Never Happened: Tasty Bits and Spicy Tales from My Life. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press, 1996. [Dorinda is from Ghana, living in Australia. She trained at St. George's Hospital, London, England].

Heeney, Helen, comp. Life Before Medicare: Canadian Experiences. Orilla: Stories Project, 1995. ISBN 0-9699545-0-6.

Hill, E. Jean M., and Rondalyn Kirkwood. Breaking Down the Walls: Nursing Science at Queen's University. Kingston: 1991. (Twohig, 1995: 26).

Kendrick, Martin, and Krista Slade. Spirit of Life: The Story of Women's College Hospital. Toronto: Women's College Hospital, 1993.

Kraegel, Janet, and Mary Kachoyeanos. "Just a Nurse": From Clinic to Hospital Ward, Battleground to Cancer Unit — The Hearts and Minds of Nurses Today. New York: Dell, 1990. ISBN 0-440-20763-0.

Lanara, Vassiliki A. Heroism as a Nursing Value — A Philosophical Perspective. 2nd reprint. Athens: n.p., 1991. (Kourkouta & Lanara, 1996: 56).

Landells, Edith A., ed. The Military Nurses of Canada: Recollections of Canadian Military Nurses. White Rock, British Columbia: Addison Graphics Ltd., 1995. ISBN 0-9699561-0-X.

McPherson, Kathryn. Bedside Matters: The Transformation of Canadian Nursing, 1900-1990. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1996. ISBN 0-19-541219-2.

Mychajlunow, Lorraine, and Sharon Richardson. Directory of Nursing Archival Resources in Alberta. Edmonton: University of Alberta, 1996. ISBN 0-9680708-0-9.

Nolan, P. A History of Mental Health Nursing. London: Chapman and Hall, 1993. (Wright, 1996: 18).

O'Day, Veronica C. [History of the Nurses' Association of Westchester County 1938-1992]. (Bulletin (AAHN), no. 48 (Fall 1995): 9).

Penney, Sheila. A Century of Caring 1897-1997: The History of the Victorian Order of Nurses for Canada. Ottawa: VON, 1996. ISBN 0-9681111-0-6.

Piercey, Rhoda Maude. `True Tales': Memoirs of an Outport Midwife. Edited by Janet McNaughton. St. John's Nfld: Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University, 1992. (CCWH Newsletter (Spring 1996): 19.

Rafferty, A., ed. Nursing History and the Politics of Welfare. London: Routledge, forthcoming. (Cushing, 1996:32).

Registered Nurses' Association of Ontario. Protecting Nurses: The History of the Legal Assistance Program. Toronto: RNAO, n.d. [The first ten years of RNAO's Legal Assistance Program (LAP)].

Registered Nurses' Association of Ontario. Nursing Voices: Celebrating Diversity. Toronto: RNAO, n.d. [Contributions from individual nurses to celebrate the "rewards of nursing practice"].

Schultz, B. A Tapestry of Service: The Evolution of Nursing in Australia Vol. 1: Foundation to Federation 1788-1900. Melbourne: Churchill Livingstone, 1991. (Pearson & Taylor, 1996: 44).

Schurr, Margaret, and Margaret Lee, eds. The Nurses at Fulham: 1959-1963 Britain: Fulham Nurses' League, n.d. Newsletter (History of Nursing Society, RCN), no. 3 (Autumn 1996): 7.

Society of Otorhinolaryngology and Head-Neck Nurses. ORL Head and Neck Nursing 14, no. 3 (Summer 1996). 20th Anniversary Issue. (Courtesy of Elizabeth Tausky Wolff).

Trembath, Richard, and Donna Hellier. All Care and Responsibility: A History of Nursing in Victoria 1850-1934. Melbourne: Florence Nightingale Committee, Australia, Victoria Branch, 1987. (Pearson & Taylor, 1996: 44).



1997, Jan 21 For American Association for the History of Nursing, Hartford, Connecticut, 26-28 September 1997. CONTACT: Dr. Diane Hamilton, Chair, AAHN Abstract Review Committee, 2370 Mansfield Street, Kalamazoo, MI 49009.



If you find yourself in London, England on Saturday, May 3, 1997, you may be in time for the annual Mary Seacole Commemorative Day. A service is to be held at her graveside in Kensal Green, followed by an annual lecture. Mary Seacole came from Jamaica and provided care to the sick and wounded during the Crimea war. After returning to England she wrote of her experiences, Wonderful Adventures of Mrs. Seacole in Many Lands (London: J. Blackwood, 1857). George Cadogan has edited a reprint, Mary Seacole: Jamaican Nightingale (Stratford, Ontario: Williams Wallace Publishers, 1989). CONTACT: RCN, 20 Cavendish Square, London W1M 0AB. TEL: 0171-872-0840; FAX: 0171-355-1379. (Newsletter 2 (History of Nursing Society, RCN) (Summer 1996): 2.



Margaret Kerr's name has been submitted by the BC History group. (History of Nursing News (RNABC), 7 (June 1996): 4).




Feb 14-16 University of Manitoba Institute for the Humanities conference on new directions/ideas in humanities research. CONTACT: Barbara Kelcey, UMIH, 108 Isbister Bldg, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2. FAX: 204-275-5782; e-mail: <>. (CCWH Newsletter (Fall 1996): 14).

Apr 3-6 American Association for the History of Medicine in Colonial Williamsburg, VA. (Windows in Time 4 (September 1996): 4).

Apr 10-13 Southern Nursing Research Society in Norfolk, VA. CONTACT: Arlene Keeling, PhD. TEL: 804-924-5906. (Windows in Time 4 (September 1996): 4).

May 1-3 BC Studies: Tradition and Innovation. CONTACT: Cheryl Krasnick Warsh, Department of History, Malaspina University-College, Nanaimo, BC, V9R 5S5; e-mail: <>. (CCWH Newsletter (Fall 1996): 14).

May 30-1 Jun Western Association of Women Historians 28th conference near San Francisco. CONTACT: Dr. Nupur Chaudhuri, 1737 Vaughn Drive, Manhattan, Kansas, USA 66502; e-mail: <>. (CCWH Newsletter (Fall 1996): 14).

Jun 6-8 Canadian Historical Association, Learned Societies conference at Memorial University, St. John's, Newfoundland. FAX: 709-737-2164. (CCWH Newsletter (Fall 1996): 8).

Jun 6-8 Canadian Society for the History of Medicine conference at Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's. CONTACT: Dr. J. K. Crellin, CSHM Program Committee 1997, History of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland, A1B 3V6. FAX: 709-737-6011; e-mail: <>.

Jun 12-15 10th CAHN/ACHN Annual Conference in Vancouver. This will be an international history of nursing conference planned in cooperation with the BC History of Nursing Professional Practice Group. CONTACT: Nina Rumen, Treasurer, International History of Nursing Conference, #110-1720 West 12th Avenue, Vancouver, BC, V6J 2E6. TEL: 604-733-7529 or e-mail to Beth Fitzpatrick: <>.

Jun 13-14 History and Women's Studies Outreach, University of Wisconsin-Madison. CONTACT: Joyce Follet or Nancy Worcester, Department of Liberal Studies, 610 Langdon St., Madison, WI 53703; FAX: 608-262-2475. (CCWH Newsletter (Fall 1996): 15).

June 15-20 International Council of Nurses Quadrennial Congress to be held in Vancouver.

Sep 26-28 Fourteenth Annual Conference of the American Association for the History of Nursing in association with the University of Connecticut and MU Chapter of Sigma Theta Tau, Hartford, CT.


June 11th CAHN/ACHN Annual Conference.

June Canadian Nurses' Association Conference in Toronto, Ontario.

Jun 30-2 Jul Interim conference of the International Federation for Research in Women's History to be held at the University of Melbourne, Australia. CONTACT: Nancy Hewitt: e-mail <>. (CCWH Newsletter (Fall 1996): 8).

Fall Fifteenth Annual Conference of the American Association for the History of Nursing. To be co-sponsored with the University of Mississippi School of Nursing, Jackson, MI.


June 12th CAHN/ACHN Annual Conference.

Fall Sixteenth Annual Conference of the American Association for the History of Nursing. To be co-sponsored with Boston College, Boston, MA.


June 13th CAHN/ACHN Annual Conference.

June Canadian Nurses' Association Conference in Vancouver, British Columbia.

Fall Seventeenth Annual Conference of the American Association for the History of Nursing. To be co-sponsored with the College of Nursing, Villanova, University, Villanova, PA.


June 14th CAHN/ACHN Annual Conference.

Fall Eighteenth Annual Conference of the American Association for the History of Nursing. Co-sponsored with the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA.


June 15th CAHN/ACHN Annual Conference.

June Canadian Nurses' Association Conference in St. John's, Newfoundland.

Fall Nineteenth Annual Conference of the American Association for the History of Nursing. Co-sponsored with Brigham Young University, Salt Lake City, Utah.


June 16th CAHN/ACHN Annual Conference.

June Canadian Nurses' Association Conference in Regina, Saskatchewan.



Competitive Student Award (AAHN) 1995. Ellen Ellis. "The Evolution of Tuberculosis Nursing Practice at the Trudeau Sanitorium, Saranac Lake, New York, 1884-1954." Bulletin (AAHN), no. 48 (Fall 1995): 1.

Lavinia L. Dock Award (AAHN) 1995. Sandra Beth Lewenson. Taking Charge: Nursing Suffrage and Feminism in America, 1873-1920. Bulletin (AAHN), no. 48 (Fall 1995): 1.



Angels of Mercy. This video about Canadian military nurses in the first and second world war can be loaned from the Registered Nurses' Association of Ontario. (Registered Nurse Journal (RNAO), 8 (October/November 1996): 17).

American Nurses' Association. To Advance We Must Unite. [History of ANA]. Produced by Diane Mancino and the Foundation of the National Student Nurses' Association. 55 min. NSNA Foundation ca 1996. Videocassette. ("New Film." Bulletin (AAHN), no. 52 (Fall 1996): 7).



In memory of Mary Patterson Toronto Western Hospital 1934, the following people kindly made donations to the Allemang Centre:

J. Scott Broderick • Mary Carr • Carole Carruthers • Jean Dalziel • Muriel Ferris • Mary Gilfallan • Margaret Greene • Mary Hall • Gloria Hauck • Catherine Heron • Barbara Hilliker • Elizabeth Johnston • Ruth Kaukinen • Jean MacNaughton • Enid Matheson • Dr. Helen Niskala • Helen Ott • Aruella Phoenix • Irene Reid • Marilyn Ross • Denise Smith • Loretta Stockton • Mrs. E. R. Warren.

Pat Clinch, a member of the TWH Alumnae, sent in the following note about Mary Patterson:


"Let me do what good I can because I may never pass this way again." (from the Toronto Star 1986)

Mary Patterson spent a lifetime doing good as a nurse and a volunteer.

Born in Oakville, Mary Pat, as she was affectionately known, graduated from Toronto Western Hospital School of Nursing in 1934. She spent her nursing career at Toronto Western — as a head nurse and latterly as a nursing supervisor — until her retirement in 1977. Once she retired from nursing, she continued to work as a volunteer at the hospital, wheeling patients from admitting to their rooms and looking after the Candystriper program for many years.

During her nursing career and her retirement, Mary Pat was an active member of the TWH Alumnae Association. Through many years as an executive member and especially as the Membership and Files Convenor, Mary Pat became the hub for alumnae members. She knew everyone, or so it seemed, and could tell you where they lived, what their year of graduation was, if they were married. Mary became the symbol of the alumnae association — dedicated, committed, with tireless energy, to the Association and its goals of promoting unity amongst members, furthering the advancement of the profession of nursing and participating in matters of interest to the profession and Toronto Western Hospital.

Mary Pat died on September 12, 1995. At the time of her death, she was actively involved in the planning for the 100th anniversary of the alumnae. For many years, she served as a member of the TWH Archives Committee and as the Convenor of the Alumnae Archives Collection. It is fitting that tributes to her memory were made to the Margaret M. Allemang Centre for the History of Nursing. The profession is richer because "she passed this way."



Hannah Institute for the History of Medicine (Associated Medical Services Incorporated, Hannah Institute for the History of Medicine. 1994-1995 Report) has given monetary awards to,

Connelly, Marilyn. "The Old Internationals' Association: A World-wide Network — Its Impact on Canadian Nursing.

Heap, Ruby. "The Great War as a Stimulus to Professionalization: Nursing and Physiotherapy in Ontario, 1914-1930."

Perry, Jill. For work on Grenfell Mission nurses. (CCWH Newsletter (Fall 1996): 11).

Richardson, Sharon. "The Relationship of Nursing Work and Nursing Education in Alberta from 1905-1918."

Shkimba, M. "British Immigrant Nurses with the Canadian Health Care System 1950-1960."

Smith, S. "More than Catching Babies: Japanese American Midwives and Public Health in Washington and Hawaii, 1910-1940."

Sigma Theta Tau awarded a grant to Susan L. Mayer, Great Neck, NY towards her dissertation "The Jewish Experience in Nursing in America, 1880-1955." Bulletin (AAHN), no. 48 (Fall 1995): 8.



Note Cards available from the American Association for the History of Nursing, Box 90803, Washington, DC 20090-0803. Set 1- six historic military scenes; Set 2-six historic nursing scenes. (Bulletin (AAHN), no. 52 (Fall 1996): 7.

Note Cards available from Nursing Archives, Boston University. Order from Boston University, Mugar Library Special Collections, Nursing Archives, 771 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02215. A packet includes 10 cards/envelopes: photos of graduating classes, 19th century OR, Scutari hospital ward in the Crimean war. (Nursing Archives News (Boston University), 10 (September 1996): [6].

Note Cards available from The Center for Nursing Historical Inquiry, University of Virginia School of Nursing, McLeod Hall, 3008, Charlottesville, VA 22903. A packet includes 10 cards/envelopes. (Windows in Time 4 (September 1996): 3.

Monograph on nursing artifacts available from AAHN. 2nd ed., by Eleanor Herrman. (Bulletin (AAHN), no. 52 (Fall 1996): 7.



Anderson, Carole A. "Scholarship: How Important is It?" Nursing Outlook 43 (November/December 1995): 247-248.

Baly, Monica. "Some Pitfalls in Researching Documentary Sources: A Note for the Historian of Nursing." International History of Nursing Journal 2 (Autumn 1996): 70-76.

[Bliss, Michael and Jacalyn Duffin]. "Life Writing in Medical History." Interviewed by J.T.H. Connor. Canadian Bulletin of Medical History 13, no. 1 (1996): 123-137.

Boyd, K. "What Can Medical Ethics Learn from History." Journal of Medical Ethics 21 (1995): 197-198. (Holmes, 1996: 18).

Brink, P. "When Patientology is Ignored: The Case of Nazi Germany." Western Journal of Nursing Research 13, no. 2 (1991): 162-163. (Holmes, 1996: 24).

Connor, Jennifer J. "Book Culture and Medicine." Canadian Bulletin of Medical History 12, no. 2 (1995): 201-214.

Cushing, Angela. "Historical and Epistemological Perspectives on Research and Nursing History." Journal of Advanced Nursing 20 (1994): 406-407. (Cushing, 1996: 32).

Cushing, Angela. "Method and Theory in the Practice of Nursing History." International History of Nursing Journal 2 (Winter 1996): 5-32.

Fahy, Ellen T. "If You Don't Know Where You've Been, How Do you Know Where You Are Going?" N&HC: Perspectives on Community 16 (January/February 1995): 5. [Courtesy of Mary Lang].

"From Study to Abstract: The Art of Describing the Essence of a Study." Bulletin (AAHN), no. 52 (Fall 1996): 5.

Keeling, Arlene W., and Mary Carol Ramos. "The Role of Nursing History in Preparing Nursing for the Future." N&HC: Perspectives on Community 16 (January/February 1995): 30-34. [Courtesy of Mary Lang].

"The Lady with the Lamp." Guelph Alumnus (Spring 1996): 7. (Courtesy Mary Lang). [Two Guelph professors: Lynn McDonald, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, and O. P. Dwivedi, Department of Political Studies, are working with other researchers in the USA and Scotland to pull together Nightingale's collected works].

Likeman, Janet. "Reflections 1862-1996." Newsletter (History of Nursing Society, RCN), no. 3 (Autumn 1996): 5.

Lemann, Nicholas. "History Solo: Non-academic Historians." American Historical Review 100 (June 1995): 788-798.

MacDonald, Bertrum H. "A Search for Gold: Reconstructing a Private Library — The Case of Dr. Robert Bell." Canadian Bulletin of Medical History 12, no. 2 (1995): 385-410.

Maggs, Christopher. "Towards a History of Nursing." International History of Nursing Journal 1 (Summer 1996): 88-92.

Maggs, Christopher. "Hospital Records, Annual Reports and Nursing History." International History of Nursing Journal 2 (Autumn 1996): 94-96.

Maggs, Christopher. "A Response to Angela Cushing." International History of Nursing Journal 2 (Winter 1996): 88-91. [Maggs responds to Cushing's article on method and theory in the same journal issue. See above].

Mansell, Diana. "Sources in Nursing Historical Research: A Thorny Methodological Problem." Canadian Journal of Nursing Research 27 (Fall/Automne 1995): 83-86.

McGann, Susan. "Just for the Record." Newsletter (History of Nursing Society, RCN), no. 3 (Autumn 1996): 4.

Morton, Suzanne, and Janet Guilford. "Atlantic Women's History Bibliography." Acadiensis 24 (Spring 1995). (CCWH Newsletter (Fall 1996): 12).

Nuttall, Peggy. "`If You don't Know Where You came From, You don't Know Where You are Going' — (Socrates)." History of Nursing Newsletter No. 3 (Royal College of Nursing (RCN)), (Autumn 1996): 1.

Ogren, K. "The Risk of Not Understanding Nursing History." Holistic Nurse Practice 8, no. 2 (1994): 8-14. (Cushing, 1996:32).

"Our Invisible Profession." Newsletter 2 (History of Nursing Society, RCN), (Summer 1996): 1. [About the archive holdings of the RCN].

Parr, Joy. "Gender History and Historical Practice." Canadian Historical Review 76 (September 1995): 354-376. (CCWH Newsletter (Fall 1996): 4). [Hilda Neatby award for best English-language article, given by CCWH].

Parent, France, and Geneviève Postolec. "Quand Thémis recontre Clio: les femmes et le droit en Nouvelle-France." Les Cahiers de Droit 36 (May 1995): 293-318. (CCWH Newsletter (Fall 1996): 4). [Hilda Neatby award for best French-language article, given by CCWH].

Pedersen, Diana. Changing Women, Changing History: A Bibliography of the History of Women in Canada. 2d ed. Ottawa: Carleton University, 1996. (CCWH Newsletter (Fall 1996): 23).

Powell, Barbara, and Myrna Williams. Piecing the Quilt: Sources for Women's History in the Saskatchewan Archives Board. 2d ed. Regina: Canadian Plains Research Centre, 1996. (CCWH Newsletter (Fall 1996): 23).

Prentice, Alison, et al. Canadian Women: A History. 2d ed. Toronto: Harcourt Brace, 1996. (CCWH Newsletter (Fall 1996): 23).

Saidman, Sorelle. "Online Research Demands Care and Planning." Toronto Computes (January 1996): 87-88.

Taylor, Ryan. Books You Need to do Genealogy in Ontario: An Annotated Bibliography. Milton, Ontario: Round Tower Books, ca 1996. (OHS Bulletin (Ontario Historical Society), no. 105 (September/October 1996): 7).

Turner, Susan Odegaard. "How to Write a Winning Proposal." American Journal of Nursing 96 (July 1996): 64-65.

Warbinek, Ethel. "President's Message: Archives, to Keep or not to Keep?" (History of Nursing News (RNABC), 6 (January 1996): 1.



McConkey's Restaurant. After reading how nurses frequently met at McConkey's have you wondered just where it was in Toronto? It was at 145 Yonge Street. In 1879, it became the first store lit by electric lights. ("Bragging Rights." Toronto Star, 30 June 1996, A13).



"The British Columbia Memorial Book." The RNABC passed a resolution from the BC History Nursing Group to develop and display a memoriam book of RNABC members who had contributed to nursing and the community. History of Nursing News (RNABC), 7 (March 1996): 8.

"Chemainus Mural Depicts Nurses." When in the Vancouver Island town of Chemainus, British Columbia, take a look at the mural on the side of the Chemainus Medical Clinic. You will find three nurses, Nurses Graham and Johnson with the hospital's cook and Nurse MacDougal holding a baby. Doug Driediger, an Albertan artist, painted the mural in 1988 in tribute to the Chemainus hospital of 1904. Helen Mussallem brought this to the attention of the BC nursing history group. (History of Nursing News (RNABC), 6 (June 1995): 6.

Florence Nightingale tribute. While in London, Ontario, see the stained glass window given in tribute to Nightingale. It is in the St. Luke's Garden Chapel on the site of the old Beck hospital which is now a Children's Psychiatric Research Institute. (History of Nursing News (RNABC), 7 (March 1996): 9.

McCarthy, Rosemary. "Korean War Memorial." This memorial, dedicated on 27 July 1995, can be found in Ash Woods near the Lincoln Memorial, Washington, DC. It shows nurses with gear and equipment. Bulletin (AAHN), no. 48 (Fall 1995): 4-5.



Monica Baly with Muriel Skeet is researching the history of the Middlesex Hospital School of Nursing for publication in 1998. If you know anything about the school which might be of help CONTACT: Monica E. Baly, 19 Royal Crescent, Bath, BA1 2 LT, England. They are interested in recollections, documents, and people. (Newsletter (History of Nursing Society, RCN), no. 3 (Autumn 1996): 7.

Margaret R. Currie is researching the history of fever nurse training as part of her PhD research. She is looking for the records of the Fever Nursing Association dating from 1909 and information about a Fever Nurses' League. If you can help, Margaret can be reached at 9, Cotefield, Luton, Beds., UK, LU4 OEQ. (Newsletter 2 (History of Nursing Society, RCN), (Summer 1996): 3).

Beth Fitzpatrick, editor of the BC History of Nursing News is looking for old maternity nursing texts for her private collection. In particular she is looking for Family Centered Maternity Nursing by Ernestine Wiedenbach (1950s). Beth can be found at Box 444, Brackendale, BC, V0N 1H0. TEL: 604-898-3156 or e-mail: <>. History of Nursing News (RNABC), 6 (June 1995): 3; (January 1996): 12).

Laddie Hutchins of the Vancouver General Hospital School of Nursing Archives would appreciate receiving VGH uniforms, books and other memorabilia from training days. History of Nursing News (RNABC), 7 (October 1996): 4.

Kriste Lindenmeyer. The H-Net List for Women's History is looking for reviewers. CONTACT: Kriste Lindenmeyer, Co-editor, H-Women e-mail: <>. (CCWH Newsletter (Fall 1996): 15).

Dorothy Moore. Council on Information Resources for Nursing is revising its 1989 Guide to Archival Sources in Nursing. Nursing archives and societies wishing to have their addresses included should contact: Dorothy L. Moore, RN, MS, National Library of Medicine, 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894. FAX: 301-480-3537. Bulletin (AAHN), no. 48 (Fall 1995): 6.



Anna Lam (1906-1996) in 1929 graduated from the Nanaimo General Hospital, British Columbia and became the first Canadian of Chinese descent to qualify as a Registered Nurse in British Columbia. (Michael Valpy, "Lives Lived: Anna Lam," Globe and Mail (Toronto), 1 April 1996, A14).



Margaret M. Allemang Centre for the History of Nursing on 23 March 1996 in Toronto, Ontario:

Lang, Mary. "The Weir Report: An Interpretation."


Margaret M. Allemang Centre for the History of Nursing on 26 October 1996 in Toronto, Ontario:

McPherson, Kathyrn read from her new book Bedside Matters: The Transformation of Canadian Nursing, 1900-1990.


American Association for the History of Nursing Special Seminar, 9 May 1996, in conjunction with the American Association for the History of Medicine conference, Buffalo, NY (flyer):

Fairman, Julie. "Whose Toy is this Anyway? Uses of Technology after 1950."

Hiestand, Wanda. "Invisible Inventors."

Sandelowski, Margarete. "In the World of the Tool: Technology in American Nursing before World War Two."


American Association for the History of Nursing, 13th Annual Conference, Cleveland, Ohio, 11-13 October 1996:

Bergstrom, Linda et al. "An Oral History with Two Pioneers in Nurse-Midwifery."

Carter, Kimberly Ferren. "Trumpets of Attack: Caring for the Crippled Child 1930-1950."

Collins, Sandra. "History of Burrell Memorial Training School for Black Nurses 1919-1934."

Curtin, Leah. "Nursing: A Tradition with a Future." [Keynote Address].

Deno, Ann. "The Asclepeia: Ancient Models of Wholistic Nursing."

Doona, Mary Ellen. "Florence Nightingale, Georgina Moore and Joanna Reddan Bridgeman: . . ."

Egenes, Karen J. "`A Suitable Field for Women in the Highest Culture' . . ."

Fairman, Penny. "Analysis of the Image of Nursing and Nurses as Portrayed in Fictional Literature 1850-1995."

Feigenbaum, Janice Cooke. "Mary Adelaide Nutting's Use of the Political Process to Advance Nursing."

Gordon, Ralph C. "Linda Richards at Kalamazoo State Hospital."

Kerr, Janet Ross, and Pauline Paul. "Women, Higher Education and Nursing in the United States and Canada: . . ."

Lusk, Brigid. "Pretty and Power: Images of Nurses in Hospital Journals 1930-1950."

Maher, Sister Mary Denis. "`From the Best-Run Hospital in the Confederacy' . . ."

Manharth, Marjorie. "An Historical Trip Through Death and Dying via Nursing Textbooks."

McNeely, A. Gretchen. "Graduate Nursing Education in Montana 1957-1994."

Oboyski, Anne K. "The Legislative Path Toward Autonomous Nursing in New York State."

Olson, Tom. "`Making Sense of One World': Numbers, Narrative, and Nursing History."

Ott, Maureen. "An Analysis of the Friendship of Lavinia Dock and Lillian Wald 1898-1930."

Pickler, Rita H. "Women of Vision: Lessons from the Past for the Present."

Rafael, Adeline R. Falk et al. "`In Our Era': An Oral History of University of Colorado Nursing Graduates . . ."

Richardson, Sharon L. "Alberta's District Nursing Service: A Feminist Solution to Frontier . . . Care."

Rinker, Sylvia. "Caring for Civil War Troops: A Foundation for Nursing Practice."

Rogers, Barbara P., and Janette Waits. "Bearing the Bandages, Water, and Sponge: . . . Wound Care 1845-1945."

Sabin, Linda. "Using Humor to Teach Nursing History."

Sabin, Linda. "1914-1918: The Time When Southern Nursing Became Respectable."

Spidle, Jake W. "Public Health Nurses, Pioneering in New Mexico."

Stanton, Marietta P. "Common Themes and Shared Meanings for Military Nurse Veterans."


American Nurses' Association Symposium, at the ANA Council of Nurses' Research Scientific Session and a concurrent session at the Centennial meeting, in Washington, DC, 14-15 June 1996 (The Chronicle 8 (Spring 1996: 5).

Brush, Barbara. "The Politics of Place: Racial and Ethnic Segregation of Nurses in Post WWII American Hospitals."

D'Antonio, Patricia. "Negotiated Care: Patients and Staff at the Friends Asylum, 1817-1850."

Dieckmann, Janna. "Political Determinants of Long-Term Outcomes."

Fairman, Julie. "Camouflaged Realities: Patient Outcomes & ICUs."


Association for Human Caring Conference, May 1995 at the University of Virginia. (Bulletin (AAHN), no. 48 (Fall 1995): 8):

Mayer, Susan L. "Nursing's Caring Heritage: The Jewish Perspective."


Canadian Association for the History of Nursing/Association Canadienne pour l'Histoire du Nursing, in Halifax, 14-16 June 1996:

Amirault, Mardi A. "The Rise and Fall of Miss Watson."

Baldwin, Douglas. "The Public Health Nurse as Educational Architect."

Bassendowski, Sandra. "Nursing Education: TB Nursing in 1920s-30s."

Bergstrom, Linda, P. Davis, T. Wootten, M. Pokorny, N. Moss, and M. Stock. "An Oral History with Two Pioneers in Nurse-Midwifery."

Care, D., J. McKenzie, and M. Roy. "Manitoba Nurses Breaking Ground: A New Look at Old Ways."

Drake, M. L., and Susan McMahon. "Using Nursing Memories to Establish a Local Historical Nursing Base."

Francis, D. M. "A Woman with a Vision."

Gautreau, Gerene, and Patricia Winans-Orr. "The Life and Times of Alena Jean MacMaster."

Hallett, Christine. "The `Good Nurse' in the Eighteenth Century: Perceptions of Nursing in the British Printed Tracts."

Helmstadter, Carol. "Building a New Nursing Service."

Highet, Ann, Barbara Keddy, and Marie Cron. "Sisters of Charity Nurses Telling Their Stories: The Habit of Caregiving."

Jones, S. B. "Nursing History as a Call to Activism."

Komanac, K. M., and B. Dittman. "The Amazing Grace."

Lambie, E. "When, Why, How, What and Who?"

MacKinnon, M. "Biography of a Rural Nurse in Saskatchewan."

MacQueen, Joyce. "Edna L. Moore: Leader in Public Health Nursing 1931-1957."

McMahon, Sharon. "Treasuring Antiquities — Helping the Past Tell Its Story: How to Discover, Acquire, Create, Preserve and Interpret Nursing's Heritage."

McNeely, A. Gretchen, and R. T. Sullivan. "Graduate Nursing Education in Montana, 1957-1994: Phase One."

Mychajlunow, Lorraine, and Sharon Richardson. "A Provincial Survey of Nursing Archival Resources."

Paul, Pauline, and Janet Ross Kerr. "Do Women in Universities Constitute a Real or Token Force? The Case of Nursing over more than Seven Decades in the Academy."

Profetto-McGrath, J. "Oral Nursing History Interview: The Do's and the Don'ts."

Quiney, L. "Canadian Women and VAD Nursing: World War One and Beyond."

Reid, J., L. Scruby, and P. Farrell. "Communities' History Restored: The Value of Community Assessment."

Richardson, Sharon. "Alberta's District Nursing Service: A Feminist Solution to Frontier Health Care, 1919-1976."

Rose, K., C. Webb, and K. Waters. "Unchanging Perspectives: Nursing and Professional Autonomy."

Shkimba, M. "British Trained Nurses at Work in Canada 1950-1960."

Summers, Anne. "Frameworks or Straightjackets? Secular and Religious Models in Nursing Historiography." [Hannah Lecture].

Toman, C., and E. Kerr. "The Emergence of Cardiovascular Nursing at the Ottawa Civic Hospital 1968-1972."

Twohig, Peter L. "A Modest Proposal: The Dalhousie School of Nursing Project."

Wade, L. "A Tale of Two Cities: British Regional Nursing Relationships During the First Quarter of the Twentieth Century."

Warbinek, Esther, and Glennis Zilm. "Nursing Involvement in Community Efforts to Control Tuberculosis in British Columbia 1895-1920."

Weir, R. "Nursing Leagues in the U.K."


Canadian Historical Association/Société historique du Canada, Brock University, St. Catharines, 31 May-2 June 1996 (Bulletin du CCHF (Spring 1996): 17).

Richardson, Sharon. "Shifting Power: Canadian Hospital Lady Superintendents and Medical Superintendents, 1890 to 1914."


Canadian Society for the History of Medicine, Annual Meeting, Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario, 31 May-2 June 1995:

Cohen, Yolande. "Les apories d'une histoire sociale et les infirmières au Quebec, 1880-1947."/"The Challenge of Writing a Social History of Quebec Nurses, 1880-1947."

Richardson, Sharon. "A Gendered Relationship: Lady Superintendents and Medical Superintendents in Canadian Hospitals, 1880-1914."/"Une relation de genre: Directrices et Directeurs dans les hôpitaux canadiens, 1880-1914."

Richardson, Sharon, and Lorraine Michajlunow. "Archival Resources for Historical Research in Alberta."/"Les archives historiques pour le recherche des infirmières en Alberta." [A workshop].


Center for Nursing Historical Inquiry (University of Virginia) to be presented 28 March 1996, (Agnes Dillon Randolph Lecture — 1996 Awardee):

Donahue, M. Patricia. "The Eternal Nurse: Images in Time."


Center for Nursing Historical Inquiry (University of Virginia) to be presented 10 April 1996, (Windows in Time 4 (April 1996): 3):

Waits, Jeanette. "Eliza Parish Pillars: Pioneer Public Health Nurse."


Center for Nursing Historical Inquiry (University of Virginia) to be presented during the Fall of 1996. (Flyer):

Colaizzi, Janet. "The Coming of Professional Nursing at Eastern State Psychiatric Hospital."

Connor-Cook, Patricia. "Coconut Grove Fire and Its Human Dimensions."

Pickler, Rita. "Lillian Wald: A Woman of Vision."


Department of Nursing and Midwifery Studies, University of Nottingham, "Nursing, Women's History and the Politics of Welfare," 18-21 September 1996 (Flyer):

Baly, Monica. "The Pitfalls of Writing History."

Buhler-Wilkerson, Karen. "Sick at Home: `An Unchanging Purpose in a Changing World'."

Davies, Celia. "New Woman, New Nurse, New NHS — The Changing Face of Health Care Professionalism in Britain."

Marland, Hilary. "`Catholic Girls, There is Work!': Catholic Midwives and Childbirth Reform in the Netherlands, 1913-1930."

Robinson, Jane. "Sustainable Development: International Health Policy in the 1990s."

Wiegman, Nanny. "Nursing and Feminism in the Netherlands, 1880-1920."


Ethel Johns Nursing Research Forum, sponsored by the Xi Eta Chapter of Sigma Theta Tau, Vancouver in February 1996 (History of Nursing News (RNABC), 7 (March 1996): 8):

Warbinek, Ethel, and Glennis Zilm. "Emergence of Tuberculosis Nursing in British Columbia 1895-1920."


History of Nursing Society (RCN), "Foundations of Nursing Leadership," 22 March 1996. (Flyer):

Kirby, Stephanie. "Nursing Leadership in the LCC, 1929-1948."

McGann, Susan. "The Founders of the Royal College of Nursing, London."

Rafferty, Anne Marie. "Networking for Leadership: An Historical Perspective."

Roberts, Helen. "Power, Gender and Feminine Ideology in Reformed Nursing 1878-1884."


History of Nursing Society (RCN), "History Workshops," 20 May 1996. (Flyer):

Adams, John. "Oral History Techniques."

Baly, Monica, and Susan McGann. "Documentary Sources — The Pitfalls."

Parry, Clive. "Computer Programmes for Analysing Historical Data: Demonstration of QSR NUD.IST"


History of Nursing Society (RCN), Annual Lecture, 21 November 1996. (Newsletter 2 (History of Nursing Society, RCN), (Summer 1996): 4):

Fitzgerald, Rosemary. "The Work of Missionary Nurses in Colonial India."


l'Institut d'histoire de l'Amerique française 49th Conference, 3-5 October 1995 at Orford, Québec (CCWH Newsletter (Fall 1996): 10):

Daigle, Johanne, and Nicole Rousseau. "Profession infirmière de colonies: la contribution des femmes aux services médicaux dans les régions isolées du Québec, 1939-1972."


International Congress on the History of Medicine, August-September 1996, on Kos, Greece (Courtesy of Marianne):

Tallberg, Marianne. "Who was the Nurse in Byzantine Time?"


Nursing Archives Associates (Boston University) at its annual meeting 16 April 1996, (flyer):

Barry, Margaret, Joellen Hawkins, Maureen Tully-Lopez, and Catherine W. Tinkham. "Voices from 100 Years Ago: Celebrating the Centenniel of the American Nurses Association." [The panel included Lavinia Dock, Sophia Palmer, Linda Richards, Isabel Hampton Robb, and Jane Toppan].



"Le Jour du Souvenir." Nurses Memorial, Parliament Buildings, Ottawa. Standing in front of the nurses' memorial with Remembrance Day flowers on 11 November 1995 are Eleanor Ross, President of the Canadian Nurses' Association, Lt-Col. (retired) Hallie J. T. Sloan, President of the Nursing Sisters' Association of Canada, and the Hon. Lawrence MacAuley, Secretary of State (Veterans). Canadian Nurse 92 (January 1996): 11.



Atlantis, a Canadian journal, is resuming publication and looking for articles on women's history. (CCWH Newsletter (Fall 1996): 5).

Critical Matrix: The Princeton Journal of Women, Gender and Culture is interested in articles. CONTACT: Alison Demos or Anne-Lise Francois, editors, Women's Studies, Princeton University, 113 Dickinson, Princeton, NJ 08544 USA; e-mail: <>. (CCWH Newsletter (Fall 1996): 16).

Journal of Military Nursing and Research is seeking articles. CONTACT: E. J. Gossett Pub. Co., P.O. Box 528489, Chicago, IL 60652-8489. (Bulletin (AAHN), no. 48 (Fall 1995): 9).

Gender and History is seeking submissions. CONTACT: Grey Osterud, Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe College, 10 Garden Street, Cambridge MA 02138 USA. (CCWH Newsletter (Fall 1996): 16).

Studies in Gender and History is seeking articles. CONTACT: Karen Dubinsky, Assistant Professor, History Department, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6. TEL: 613-545-2150; FAX: 613-545-6298; e-mail: <> or Franca Iacovetta, Associate Professor, History Department, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 1A1. TEL: 416-978-2070/416-287-7152; FAX: 416-978-4810/416-287-7116; e-mail: <>. (CCWH Newsletter (Fall 1996): 15).


RECENT NURSING ACQUISITIONS OF THE ALLEMANG CENTRE (made available through the kindness of Moira Lynch, Margaret Van Every, Robert Macaulay, John Hardy, Norine Love, Margaret Robins and Patricia Stanojevic):

Books, Monographs & Journals.

16 Jan 91 Registered Nurses Association of Ontario 5 cu. ft

Various nursing texts and monographs.


1992 George Brown College 10 cu. ft.

Various nursing texts and monographs.


12 Jan 96 George Brown College 33 cu. ft.

Journals include:

American Journal of Nursing 1912, 1921+, 1930-1970; Canadian Journal of Public Health 1959-1973; Canadian Nurse 1905-1974; Nursing Outlook 1960-1978; Nursing Research 1965-1974; Nursing Times 1965-1974.


12 Jan 96 George Brown College 35 cu. ft.

Journals include:

American Association of Nephrology Nurses and Technicians 1982, 1983; Association of Operating Room Nurses Journal 1972-1974, 1980, 1982, 1983; American Journal of Nursing 1971-1982, Jan-Jun 1983; Canadian Nurse 1975, 1977-1983; Canadian Operating Room Nursing Journal June 1983, Oct-Dec 1984; Child and Family vols. 15-19 (incomplete), 1982ff (loose issues); Clinical Symposia 1970-1983; Clinical Pediatrics Jan-Dec 1983; Clinics in Perinatology 1974-1983 (incomplete); Critical Care Nurse Jan-Dec 1983 (incomplete); Heart and Lung: The Journal of Critical Care 1973-1983; Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing 1979, 1980, 1983, 1984; Journal of Nurse-Midwifery 1983-1985; Journal of Obstetric, Gynecological and Neonatal Nursing 1978-1980, 1983; Journal of Psychological Nursing 1983 (incomplete); Maternal-Child Nursing Journal 1983; American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing 1983; Medical Clinics of North America 1971-1975 (incomplete), 1977-1981 (incomplete); Modern Medicine of Canada 1954, 1966, 1967-1974; Nursing 1973-1982; Nursing Care 1973-1975, 1977-1979; Nursing Clinics of North America 1966-1983; Nursing Forum 1972-1974; Nursing Outlook 1953-1959; Nursing Research

1961-1965, 1975-1978, 1983 (incomplete), 1984 (incomplete); Neonatal Network Dec 1983; Nursing Times 1975-1980 (Jan-Mar 1979 missing); The CommOHNAcator (Ontario Occupational Health Nurses Association) Feb, Jun, Oct 1983; Orthopedic Clinics 1972-1981 (incomplete), 1983 (incomplete); Perinatology-Neonatology The Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Health Care 1983 (incomplete), 1985; Perspectives in Psychiatric Care 1983; R.N. 1970-1976, 1978, 1980-1983; 1984 (incomplete); RNAO News 1986-1989 (incomplete); Surgical Clinics 1971-1981 (incomplete).


26 Apr 96 Women's College Hospital Library 2 cu. ft.

Various nursing texts.


Personal Papers.

22 May 96 Patricia Anderson Stanojevic 4 cu.ft.

Books, journals, files, briefs, reports spanning her nursing career.


These items are now being held in storage by the Centre until a place can be found where our holdings pertaining to the history of nursing such as, books/journals, documents/photographs and artifacts can be made available to researchers and those interested in nursing's past. The Centre appreciates the help given by Bob Macaulay, Archivist, George Brown College, in finding suitable storage facilities.



Baly, Monica. Review of Florence Nightingale: Selections and Commentaries, edited by Michael D. Calabria and Janet A. Macrae. International History of Nursing Journal 1 (Spring 1996): 91-93.

Baly, Monica. Review of The Nightingale of Modern Nursing, by Rob van der Peet. International History of Nursing Journal 1 (Summer 1996): 93-95.

Baly, Monica. Review of Building for the Future — A Nursing History from 1896 to 1996 to Commemorate the Centenary of St. Mary's Convent and Nursing Home, Chiswick, by Pamela Myers. International History of Nursing Journal 2 (Autumn 1996): 89-91.

Dopson, Laurence. Review of Air Ambulance: Six Decades of the Scottish Air Ambulance Service, by Iain Hutchinson. International History of Nursing Journal 2 (Autumn 1996): 92-94.

Erickson, Grace P. Review of Taking Charge: Nursing, Suffrage, and Feminism in America, 1873-1920, by Sandra Beth Lewenson. Nursing History Review 5 (1997): 228-229.

Fawcett, Jacqueline. Review of Martha E. Rogers: Her Life and Her Work, edited by V. M. Malinski and E. A. M. Barrett. Nursing History Review 5 (1997): 225-226.

Hamilton, Diane. Review of Feminism and Nursing: An Historical Perspective on Power, Status, and Political Activism in the Nursing Profession, by Joan Roberts and Thetis Group. Nursing History Review 5 (1997): 219-220.

Maggs, Christopher. Review of The Development of Nursing in Palestine: A Historical Analysis, by Varsen Aghabekian Shahin, Asma Imam and Sabri Safardi. International History of Nursing Journal 1 (Spring 1996): 93-94.

McGann, Susan. Review of Nursing at Bart's: A History of Nursing Service and Nursing Education at St. Bartholemew's Hospital, London, by Geoffrey Yeo. International History of Nursing Journal 2 (Autumn 1996): 91-92.

Richardson, Sharon. Review of The Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, Fall 1995, Vol. 27, No. 3. Newsletter (CAHN/ACHN), 9 (Spring 1996): 9-10.

Richardson, Sharon. Review of International History of Nursing Journal, Autumn 1995, Vol. 1, No. 2. Newsletter (CAHN/ACHN), 9 (Spring 1996): 10-11.

Riegler, Natalie. Review of Legacy: History of Nursing Education at the University of British Columbia, 1919-1994, by Glennis Zilm and Ethel Warbinek. Canadian Journal of Nursing

Research 27 (Fall/Automne 1995): 139-140.

Starns, Penny. Review of The Royal London Hospital: A Brief History, by Sheila Collins. International History of Nursing Journal 1 (Spring 1996): 90-91.

Zilm, Glennis. Review of Nurse Administrators Association of B.C. History 1918-1944, by Marilyn Willman et al. Vancouver: Nurse Administrators Association of B.C., 1995. History of Nursing News (RNABC), 6 (January 1996): 7.

Zilm, Glennis. Review of "Recollections of Working in Medical Services, National Health and Welfare 1955-1967," by Winnie Greenhalgh Norquay Roscoe Paege. History of Nursing News (RNABC), 6 (January 1996): 7-8. [This document can be located through the nursing archives of the Alberta Association of Registered Nurses and for the lucky people in BC, Glennis has a copy].



"The History of Nursing in the English Urban Region from 1919" was carried out by Frances Trees and the head of the Department of Nursing, University of Liverpool and directed by Professor Kate Morle. It was funded by the Wellcome Trust. One result of this study has been 76 taped interviews with retired nurses; these can be found in the archives of the Liverpool University, the RCN and the National Sound Archives. (Newsletter 2 (History of Nursing Society, RCN), no. 2 (Summer 1996): 2).

Margaret Sanger Papers Project is locating, collecting and publishing the papers of Margaret Sanger (1879-1966). This activity is sponsored by the New York University, Smith College, the National Endowment for the Humanities, the National Historical Publications and Records Commission, the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations and other private agencies. It is to be made available on microfilm, CD-ROM and in book-form. CONTACT: Cathy Moran Hajo, Assistant Editor, Margaret Sanger Papers, New York University, 70 Washington Square South, New York, NY 10012. TEL: 212-998-8666. (Bulletin (AAHN), no. 48 (Fall 1995): 9).

Marion McCune Rice Project is seeking information about Marion Rice, a New Hampshire nurse who served with the American Red Cross in WWI. This project is being co-ordinated by a non-profit organization from the Keene and Brattleboro area, supported by Keene State College, the Red Cross, Smith College and the New Hampshire Humanities Council. CONTACT: Steve Hooper, Project Chair, 5 Colby Street, Keene, NH 03431. TEL: 603-357-8356. (Bulletin (AAHN), no. 50 (Spring 1996): 11).



Adames, Rebecca S. "Development of Public Health Nursing Practice as Related to the Jewish Population in Palestine 1914-1948." PhD diss., Columbia University, 1975. (Bartal, 1996: 5).

Bouchard, Hélène. "La syndicalisation à l'Hôtel-Dieu Saint-Vaillier de Chicoutimi." Memoire de maitrise, Université Laval, 1987. [Courtesy of Canadian Committee on Labour History (CCLH) Website].

Dingwell, Georgina. "An Analysis of Conflicts Experienced by Nurses During the 1989 Nurses' Strike." MEd thesis, Simon Fraser University, 1991. [Courtesy of CCLH Website].

Donaldson, Peggy. "The Development of Nursing in Northern Ireland." Doctoral diss. [no other information available]. (Newsletter (History of Nursing Society, RCN), no. 3 (Autumn 1996): 3).

Fox, Enid. "District Nursing and the Work of District Nursing Associations in England and Wales, 1900-48." PhD diss., University of London, 1993. (Fox, 1996: 32).

Gelinas, Michele. "Les travailleuses de soutien des hôpitaux du Quebec: aux origines de leurs renvendications feministes, 1947-1970." Memoirs de maitrise, Université de Montréal, 1985. [Courtesy of CCLH Website].

Hibberd, Judith M. "The Labour Disputes of Alberta Nurses, 1977-1982." PhD diss., University of Alberta, 1987. [Courtesy of CCLH Website].

Kourkouta, L. "Nursing in Byzantium." Doctoral diss. University of Athens, 1993. (Kourkouta & Lanara, 1996: 56).

Lusk, Brigid. "Professional Strategies and Attributes of Chicago Hospital Nursing During the Great Depression." Doctoral diss. University of Illinois at Chicago, ca 1996. (Bulletin (AAHN), no. 52 (Fall 1996): 3).

Richmond, Sue. "Nurses' Unionization in Manitoba: A Historical Perspective." MN thesis, University of Manitoba, 1992. [Courtesy of CCLH Website].

Sabin, Linda E. "Nursing and Health Care in Jacksonville, Florida, 1900-1930." Master's thesis. University of Florida, 1988. (Sabin, 1997: 143).

Sabin, Linda E. "From the Home to the Community: Nursing in Mississippi, 1870-1940." Ph.D. diss., University of Mississippi, 1994. (Sabin, 1997:143).

Smith, P. "A History of the RCN and Industrial Relations within the Nursing Profession and the NHS." diss., 1982 (Hart, 1996: 16).

Teichroew, Les Ian. "Hospital-Based Nursing and the Labour Process, Ontario, 1850-1922." MA thesis, Carleton University, 1987. [Courtesy of CCLH Website].

White, Jerry. "The Causes and Effects of the 1981 Hospital Strike in Ontario: Fiscal Crisis, Changing Labour Process and the Role of Gender in Public Sector Conflict." PhD diss., McMaster University, 1988. [Courtesy of CCLH Website].

Young, Susan L. "Standards in Diploma Nursing Education: The Involvement of the University of Alberta, 1920-1970." Master of Nursing thesis, University of Alberta, 1994. (Kerr and Paul, 1995: 63).

Zwanger, Lea. "Preparation of Graduate Nurses in Israel 1918-1965." PhD diss., Columbia University, 1968. (Bartal, 1996, 5).



American Association for the History of Nursing: <>. (Bulletin (AAHN), no.51 (Summer 1996): 5).

Canadian Committee on Labour History: <>.

Canadian Committee on Women's History: To join the list of members send — first name last name subscribe LINKCCWH — to <LIST SERV@UVVM. BITNET> or contact Karen Duder at the University of Victoria <>. (CCWH Newsletter (Fall 1996): 14).

Canadian History Archive: <>. (Toronto Computes (January 1996): 87).

Canadian Plains Research Centre: <>. (CCWH Newsletter (Fall 1996): 15).

Canadian serials and newspapers: <>. (CCWH Newsletter (Fall 1996): 13).

Canadian Women's History Page: <http://www/>. (History of Nursing News (RNABC), 6 (January 1996): 3.

The Center for Nursing Historical Inquiry: <>. (Windows in Time 4 (September 1996): 1).

The Center for the Study of the History of Nursing: <>. (The Chronicle 8 (Spring 1996): 2).

Champlain: The Canadian Government Information Explorer: <http://Info.IC.GC.CA/champlain/champlain.html>. (Toronto Computes (January 1996): 87).

H-Women Web: <>. For discussions and bibliographies on women's history. (CCWH Newsletter (Fall 1996): 13).

National Library of Canada/Biblioteque nationale du Canada: in English <>; in French <>. (CCWH Newsletter (Fall 1996): 13).

Women's Studies Resources, University of Iowa:>. (CCWH Newsletter (Fall 1996): 13). [Contains Florence Nightingale letters, voice recording, etc].



In 1917, Roberta Catherine MacAdams, a Nursing Sister of World War, was one of the first two women in Alberta to become a member of its legislature, the first to be voted an MP on British soil. She was elected by the soldiers and Nursing Sisters of Alberta. According to the Globe (Toronto), 29 December 1917, p. 10, MacAdams said:

The fighting men and nursing sisters of Alberta did not elect me because I was a woman, but because I was a human being whom they could trust to look after their interests in Parliament.



© 2000, The Margaret M Allemang Centre for the History of Nursing