Margaret M Allemang Centre for the History of Nursing
Bulletin Description Bulletin Archives Membership
Description Bulletin Archives Membership





Margaret M. Allemang Centre for Nursing History

Editor: Natalie Riegler, RN, PhD. 3 Dromore Crescent, Willowdale, Ontario, M2R 2H4.
TEL: 416-221-5632 E-MAIL:



Activists and Advocates: Toronto’s Health Department 1883-1983. Heather MacDougall. Toronto: Dundurn Press Ltd, 1990. 334 pp. illus.

What a book! One hundred years, 297 pages of detail and data about a health department which many of us take for granted. Heather MacDougall makes evident the fragile balance between a safe, healthy community and disease. Real and potential public health problems continue to exist. Health education for the public is as important today as it was in 1883; we need the basics: clean water and air, safe milk, adequate nutrition, housing and immunization. Public health nurses will recognize the programs and struggles.

In 1982,(8) MacDougall, then employed at the University of Toronto and having just completed her doctoral thesis on the "development of public health activities in Toronto, 1834-1890," responded to a request from a member of the Toronto City health department to write it's centennial history.(15) By the time of the book's publication, MacDougall had moved to the history department at the University of Waterloo. This book is not a critical analysis of issues, but provides the reader with a broad perspective of department and program development.

The fourteen chapters can be divided into two parts, the professional formation of the division and the development of programs. The first three chapters consider the early Toronto advocates and activists of public health (1883-1929), the "medical bureaucrats" (1929-1983) and the public health inspectors(1885-1983) and nurses(1907-1983); the remaining eleven are related sanitation; food supply; the prevention of smallpox and tuberculosis; prevention of diphtheria and polio; health education for mothers; school health programs; sexually transmitted diseases and family planning; adult health problems; chronic disease and senior citizens; fluoridation and air pollution; and environmental politics related to lead poisoning. Each of these areas merits a book onto itself.

In the first chapter, MacDougall lays the foundation of the public health department. It developed from a confluence of community needs, an international social and health reform movement, and the growth of scientific ideas, government support and zealous medical leadership. From England came Edwin Chadwick's idea of sanitation as a means of reducing urban disease.(11) Included in his idea was the "science of vital statistics,"(11) and the belief that by eliminating industrial and environmental waste, the death rate from enteric diseases could be lowered.(11) The germ theory as an explanation for disease was replacing the miasma theory and the "bacteriological revolution"(13, 12) brought vaccines and the prevention of childhood communicable diseases such as diphtheria.(12) In 1883, Toronto, given a federal grant to collect mortality statistics, appointed William Canniff as the first Medical Officer of Health (MOH).(10) Canniff, a surgeon, former Dean of the Victoria Medical School, and chair of the Canadian Medical Association committee which had persuaded the federal government to collect "urban mortality statistics," was an appropriate choice and he wanted the job.(18)

The first four medical doctors were activists and advocates in and for public health services in Toronto: Canniff (1883-1890), Norman Allen (1891-1893), Charles Sheard (1893-1910) and Charles Hastings (1910-1929). But it was not an easy task. MacDougall refers to the conflict between the MOHs and the politicians, whether at the federal, provincial or municipal level, for control of monies, staff and programs. The four humanitarian doctors, during their total career span of almost fifty years, had to rely on "their powers of persuasion to increase staff and expand services."(11) However, in 1912, under the provincial Public Health Act, the MOHs obtained _permanent tenure during `good behaviour' and residency" and the position of both chief executive officer of the local board of health and administrative head of the health department.(27)

Chapter 2 encompasses the era of "medical bureaucrats," when the department moved from "social activism to professional detachment," subordinating the "reform ethos to bureaucratic imperatives." The focus was no longer on a "public health crusade" but on "professional development and expert administration."(32) In 1929, an ominous year for the economic welfare of Torontonians, Hastings retired. As MacDougall points out, despite Hastings's, _genial personality and hands-on management style" and "flair for health promotion," he left a system which had "built-in rigidities." His successors had to cope with "structural and personnel problems during [an economic] depression and the second world war."(293) For the next half century, the department was led by Gordon Park Jackson (1929-1951), Leon Pequegnat (1951-1958), A.R.J. Boyd (1958-1972), and George W. Moss (1972-1981).

The remaining chapters about the development of specific programs can be read in any order, depending upon your interest. Each one is a complete unit. Interested in the historical struggle to improve sanitation standards, then read Chapter 4 on pigs, slums, privies, rooming houses, sewers, typhoid epidemics, chlorination and water quality. Chapter 5 details the fight to provide safe food: monitoring the preparation of meat in the abattoirs, the milk campaign for tb free cows and pasteurization, swat-the-fly contests, restaurant inspection and food handling. Chapters 6 and 7 describe the battles to prevent smallpox, tuberculosis, diphtheria and polio: quarantines, Riverdale Isolation Hospital, the anti-vaccination league, sanitariums, tuberculin testing, the toxoid campaigns in the 1930s and 1940s, the polio epidemics of the 1930s and 1950s, and Salk and Sabine vaccination. The creation of the Division of Child Hygiene is in Chapter 8: well baby clinics, the boom and decline in child health centres, and prenatal education. Chapter 9 focuses on the school-age child: school inspection (a composite of disease control, defect's detection and health education(187)), special classes such as the High Park and Victoria Park forest schools, dental services and nutrition counselling. The campaigns regarding venereal disease and birth control can be found in Chapter 10. This is followed by the history of adult mental health services, the employment of the Mental Health Nurse, and programs to prevent alcohol and drug abuse. The 12th chapter looks at anti-smoking campaigns as a means to prevent heart and lung disease, and the promotion of independent living for the older person and the development of geriatric health centres. Chapter 13 is for those interested in the struggles to fluoridate Toronto drinking water. Remember the adamancy of Gordon Sinclair on this topic? And the struggle for clean air through reducing industrial, automobile and nuclear pollutants. Finally, concerned about lead poisoning and children then read Chapter 14 for the battle waged by the health department. These chapters provide abundant information and are a fund of topics for further exploration.

Nurse historians will find many subjects needing investigation, either as issues or biographies. For example, very little is know about Janet Neilson, who was the first nurse employed by the department in 1907 to visit patients and families with tuberculosis(25, 60), or Lina L. Rogers Struthers, who was employed in 1910 by the Board of Education to start school nursing (186) and opposed its transfer to the Health Department 91880, or Matilda Simoni, Zara Price, and Parashka Stamenova who were employed in 1915, 1916 and 1920, respectively, as language nurses to serve the increasing ethnic population, but by 1925, whose own employment may have been in jeopardy as departmental policies called for all staff to be citizens of the country; nurses who were "aliens" were not wanted.(167) There is also Emma DeVeber Clarke, daughter of Dr. C. K. Clarke for whom the Clarke Institute of Psychiatry is named. She was Supervisor of Mental Hygiene Nursing, c1928 (195); her contribution to mental health needs to be researched. Though MacDougall mentions Dr. Pequegnat in relation to the Toronto Pilot Home Care Project in 1957(260-61), an exploration of the program would find a nurse, Marion Tressider Barter, very central to its success.

MacDougall refers frequently to the Phair Committee survey of the Toronto health department. But what is known of its impact on nurses and nursing service? In 1942-43, a committee under the direction of Dr. John Phair, Chief Medical Officer for Ontario and former Director of Medical Services for Toronto, assessed the department. In his report, he _condemned [the nurses' approach to health education] as ineffective," and objected to nurses as "de facto heads of the maternal and child health and VD divisions"(66) and for taking "too much responsibility for directing the [tuberculosis control] program"(132). Meanwhile, in the early days of the Second World War, Pearl Stiver, a nursing leader in her day, is mentioned as being "borrowed" by the Ontario Department of Health from her job as VD nursing supervisor with the city to direct the province's VD public health nursing efforts.(218) This is interesting when juxtaposed with the Phair Report criticisms.

Or what about a history of the nursing division, MacDougall points out that it was "the largest division . . . [and] its most visible representatives."(69) However, it is easier to pinpoint the eras of each Medical Officer of Health than those of the Directors of Nursing. According to the text and index Eunice Dyke (1914-1932) was the first, Elsie Hickey (c1941) was the third,(67), and there was Eileen Cryderman (c1958)(171). Where are the others, including Myrna Slater? A study of the nursing leaders and their strategies might show whether nurses were oppressed or blocked in the provision of nursing service.

For example, in the second chapter MacDougall gives almost one page to recounting what she calls the "Dyke-Bullick fiasco": the infamous dispute in which Dyke was fired from her job as Director of Public Health Nursing by Dr. Gordon Jackson, because of her support for staff nurse, Mary Bullick.(36) In different ways, Dyke's forced leaving can be interrupted as personalty conflict, professional hostility or gender animosity in a paternalistic environment. As I read the chapters in which nursing played a role, I began to see that the dismissal of Dyke from the department in 1932 was not only a contest of power, but reflected a battle of ideology between the professions of medicine and nursing.

Public Health Nurses saw their role as health educators and promoters, not as appliers of bandages in the school health program or assistants to doctors doing medical research. Hastings employed nurses as health educators (31, 52) and in 1914 had appointed Dyke the Director of Public Health Nurses(61); she and her nurses worked well with Hastings, but things were different with Jackson. After the dismissal of Dyke, Jackson ordered that "all correspondence had to be vetted by his office."(36) Furthermore, in 1947, Jackson who advocated the separation of health and welfare services, did not raise his nursing supervisors' salary to the same level as those supervisors in the welfare department.(38)

MacDougall points out that "during the 1960s and 1970s, nurses began to question their place in the public health hierarchy"(69) In 1965, Dr. Boyd refused to allow the nurses to "discuss the topic [of birth control and family planning] with women during home visits, at the child health centres" and after delivery in the hospital(226). Five years later another issue came between nurses and doctors. In the 1970s, school nurses did not want to be seen by the public as "band aid givers," they wanted to concentrate on "health education through personal and group counselling sessions"; meanwhile doctors, "wanted to use school children and clinic clients as experimental subjects in preventive research"(198).

A study of the health department in 1976-1977 found that the nurses had "more advanced views on the importance of primary prevention and health promotion than their medical colleagues."(69) MacDougall notes that the friction between the nursing and medical services division continued to increase in the 1970s: as attendance decreased in the child health centres, nurses wanted to re-allocate staff to other community functions, doctors wanted more "follow-up for clinic patients."(174) Though MacDougall considers the exacerbation between the two professions to be caused by a "philosophical change in nursing education from training in health education to an emphasis on community action for health promotion,"(174) I think that public health nursing's ideology of health prevention has its roots with the days of Dyke.

Those of you who know more about the department, than I, may find some errors, but the book is well-researched and documented. However, I did find one set of wrong dates. MacDougall writes that in 1923, Mary Millman and Florence Emory, senior district supervisors, joined the Department of Public Health Nursing at the

University of Toronto(29). Dr. Helen Carpenter's book on Kathleen Russell and Dr. Lynn Kirkwood's thesis on the School at the University of Toronto, both mention that Emory came to the school in 1924; Carpenter adds that Emory came after taking post-graduate education 1923-1924 (Carpenter, 1982, 16, 60-#10; Kirkwood, 1988, 91); and Millman came to the school in 1935 (Carpenter, 1982, 22, 60-#26): Kirkwood, 1988, 90).

MacDougall has written a compact volume on a complex subject, in which each chapter is part of the whole and, at the same time, can be read isolated from the others. Because of the amount of factual material in the book, it is not an exciting read, but it is well written and informative, in both text and photographs. It should be part of every nursing library. Congratulations to Dundurn Press for providing an aesthetically, well-edited book which adds to our understanding of Canada's health care system.



Agnes Etherington Art Centre in Kingston, Ontario. In this centre hangs a quilt honouring the 50th anniversary of Queen's University's School of Nursing. It was designed by Roslyn Hanes, stitched by members of the Kingston Heirloom Quilters, and completed in 1991. The design includes three graduating nurses, the tower of the nursing building and other symbols related to the school. (Newsletter (BC History of Nursing Professional Practice Group), (December 1993): 4).

Greater London Record Office (GLRO), 40 Northampton Road, London, EC1R OHB, England. The GLRO holds a number of historical records related to nursing. They include St. Thomas' Hospital (registers of nurses) • Nightingale School (registers of probationers) • Nightingale Collection (Nightingale correspondence, Bonham-Carter papers, register of nurses sent to military hospitals in the east 1854-1855, Nightingale print and photograph collection) • Nightingale Fund Council • Guy's Hospital (registers of nurses and probationers, a nursing guide) • Guy's Hospital Trained Nurses Institutions • Westminister Hospital (registers of nurses) • other hospitals • other institutions (St. John's House, Ranyard Mission and Nurses, LCC Public Health Department, North West Thames Regional Health Authority) • visual material • a selection of books and registers. (Insert in History of Nursing Society Journal (Royal College of Nursing (RCN)), 5 (1994/95).

Grey Nuns Convent and Hospital, Winnipeg. The hospital building has been retained as a museum housing general artifacts. (Ted Fitzgerald, _Old St. Boniface has Rich Heritage," Toronto Star, 11 June 1994, J8).

The National Centre for Culture and the Arts, Dublin is housed in the former Royal Hospital Kilmainham, founded in the 1680s by the Duke of Ormonde, James Butler of Kilkenny. Inspired by Les Invalides, Louis XIV's home for French army pensioners in Paris, Butler received the charter for the hospital from Charles II. When built, it could accommodate 300 army pensioners. In the 1990s, the Irish government converted the home to a modern art gallery, keeping the integrity of the building. It now houses the Irish Museum of Modern Art. (Hubert de Santana. "Modern Art Comes to Dublin." Globe and Mail (Toronto), 5 March 1994, F3).

Nursing Archives, Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University. Looking for information held in this archive, help can be obtained by telephone, or by mail. CONTACT: Helen Sherwin, Nursing Archivist, Nursing Archives Associates, Special Collections, Mugar Memorial Library, 771 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02215. TEL: 617/353-3696.

Toronto Public Library. Looking for something local in Toronto contact Barbara Myrvold, Local History Coordinator, Toronto Public Library at TEL: 416/393-7522. (Barbara Myrvold. "Local History at Toronto Public Library." Historic Toronto (Toronto Historical Board), no. 5 (December 1993): 6).



"100 Years of Healing at Home." American Journal of Nursing 94 (May 1994): 34-35. [A photographic tribute for nurses' week].

Adams, John. "Fifty Years On." History of Nursing Society Journal (Royal College of Nursing (RCN)), 5 (1994/95): 82-85. [World War 2 and the British civilian health service].

Baillargeon, Denyse. "Care of Mothers and Infants in Montreal between the Wars: The Visiting Nurses of Metropolitan Life, Les Gouttes de lait, and Assistance maternelle." Translated by Susan Joss. In Caring and Curing: Historical Perspectives on Women and Healing in Canada, ed. Dianne Dodd and Deborah Gorham, 163-181. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 1994.

Baly, Monica E. "`My Dear Harry' [—] A life of Henry Bonham Carter (1827-1921): A Florence Nightingale Museum Temporary Exhibition, 12 May to 30 October 1994" History of Nursing Society Journal (RCN), 5 (1994/95): 111-112.

Barlow, Sheila, and Maureen Swanwick. "Supplementary Benefits." History of Nursing Society Journal (RCN), 5 (1994/95): 86-91. [Paediatric nursing training].

Benson, Evelyn R. "Nursing in Germany: A Historical Study of the Jewish Presence." Nursing History Review 3 (1995): 189-200.

Birnbach, Nettie. "The Development of Organized Nursing and the Pan-American Exposition at Buffalo in 1901: Doing Historical Research." In Nursing Research: A Qualitative Perspective, 2nd ed., ed. Patricia L. Munhall and Carolyn Oiler Boyd, 372-390. New York: National League for Nursing Press, 1993.

Boutilier, Beverly. "Helpers or Heroines? The National Council of Women, Nursing, and `Woman's Work' in Late Victorian Canada." In Caring and Curing, ed. Dodd and Gorham, 17-47.

Buhler-Wilkerson, Karen. "Women, Nursing, and War: An Historical Moment." The Chronicle (Center for the Study of the History of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania), 6 (Spring 1994): 3-4. [The unveiling of Glenna Goodacre's Vietnam Women's Memorial, Washington, DC].

Bullough, Vern L. "Men in Nursing." Journal of Professional Nursing 10 (September-October 1994): 267. [courtesy of Moira Lynch].

Carrington, Betty Watts. "Connecting to the Past." Bulletin (American Association for the History of Nursing (AAHN)), 41 (Winter 1994): 6. [About Wahneida Johnson, who graduated in 1925 from the Freedman's Hospital School of Nursing in Washington, DC].

[Castillo, Carla]. "The Founding Dean of Nursing: Theresa I. Lynch, 1896-1994." The Chronicle (Center for the Study of the History of Nursing), 6 (Spring 1994): insert reprint from the Almanac, 22 February 1994.

Clarke, David. "Hamilton Civic Hospitals, Together in Caring, Teaching and Discovery in Hamilton Since 1948 [sic]." Waiting Room Journal (Hamilton, Ontario), no. 5 (November 1994): 7.

Cohen, Yolande, and Louise Bienvenue. "Émergence de l'identité professionelle chez les infirmières québécoises, 1890-1927." Canadian Bulletin of Medical History 11 (1994): 119-151.

Collins, Sheila M. "Two Victorian Matrons of the London Hospital." History of Nursing Society Journal (RCN), 5 (1994/95): 57-69.

Connor, J.T.H. "`Larger Fish to Catch Here than Midwives': Midwifery and the Medical Profession in Nineteenth-Century Ontario." In Caring and Curing, ed. Dodd and Gorham, 103-134.

Coulter, Rebecca Priegert. "Alberta Nurses and the `Illegal' Strike of 1988." In Women Challenging Unions: Feminism, Democracy and Militancy, ed. Linda Briskin and Patricia McDermott, 44-61. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1993. (CCWH Newsletter (Canadian Committee on Women's History, (Spring 1994): 7).

Courtney, Patricia. "25 Years of Connecting: A Portrait of the Canadian Association of Neuroscience Nurses." Axon (Journal of the Canadian Association of Neuro-science Nurses), 16 (September 1994): 18-22. [Mary Glover Lecture].

Dodd, Dianne. "Helen MacMurchy: Popular Midwifery and Maternity Services for Canadian Pioneer Women." In Caring and Curing, ed. Dodd and Gorham, 135-161.

Doona, Mary Ellen. "Sister Mary Joseph Croke: Another Voice from the Crimean War, 1854-1856." Nursing History Review 3 (1995): 3-41.

Eliason, Michele J. [Reply to Tom Olson's letter to the editor re: the historical context in Eliason's article _Ethics and Transcultural Nursing Care"]. Nursing Outlook 42 (September/October 1994): 243. [see Olson's letter below].

Estabrooks, Carole A. _Lavinia Lloyd Dock: The Henry Street Years." Nursing History Review 3 (1995): 143-172.

Fenwick, David. "Recollections of Mrs. Bedford Fenwick." History of Nursing Society Journal (RCN), 5 (1994/95): 92-99.

Fitzpatrick, M. Louise. "A Historical Study of Nursing Organization: Doing Historical Research." In Nursing Research: A Qualitative Perspective, ed. Patricia L. Munhall and Carolyn J. Oiler, 195-225. Norwalk, Connecticut: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1986.

Gidney, R. D., and W.P.J. Millar. "`Beyond the Measure of the Golden Rule' [:] The Contribution of the Poor to Medical Science in Nineteenth-Century Ontario." Ontario History 86 (September 1994): 219-235.

Giesberg, Judith Ann. "In Service to the Fifth Wheel: Katharine Prescott Wormeley and her Experiences in the United States Sanitary Commission." Nursing History Review 3 (1995): 43-53.

Griffon, D. P. "`Crowning the Edifice': Ethel Fenwick and State Registration." Nursing History Review 3 (1995): 201-212.

Hammond, Pamela. "The Establishment of the Roll: Reactions of the Profession to the 1939 Interim Report of the Interdepartmental Committee on Nursing Services." History of Nursing Society Journal (RCN), 5 (1994/95): 100-107.

"Happy 100th Birthday St. Paul's Hospital." Newsletter (BC History of Nursing Professional Practice Group), 5 (Summer 1994): 6.

Helmstadter, Carol. "The Passing of the Night Watch: Night Nursing Reform in the London Teaching Hospitals, 1856-90." Canadian Bulletin of Medical History 11 (1994): 23-69.

Helmstadter, Carol. "Sister Mary Jones: A Founder of Modern Nursing." Part 1. Portrait of Leadership series. Registered Nurse (Registered Nurses' Association of Ontario (RNAO)), 6 (December/January 1994/1995): 32-34.

Hezekiah, Jocelyn. "The Pioneers of Rural Pakistan: The Lady Health Visitors." Health Care for Women International 14 (November-December 1993): 493-502.

_Invisible Veterans: Nurses in War." The Chronicle (Center for the Study of the History of Nursing), 6 (Spring 1994): 4-5, 7.

Kinnear, Julia L. "The Professionalization of Canadian Nursing, 1924-32: Views in the CN and the CMAJ." Canadian Bulletin of Medical History 11 (1994): 153-74.

Kirkwood, Lynn. "Florence Emory." Portrait of Leadership series. Registered Nurse (RNAO), 6 (October/November 1994): 32-35.

Kirkwood, Rondalyn. "Blending Vigorous Leadership and Womanly Virtues: Edith Kathleen Russell at the University of Toronto, 1920-52." Canadian Bulletin of Medical History 11 (1994): 175-205.

Lorentzen, Maria. "Caring for the Sick in Medieval London: A Selective View of the Literature." History of Nursing Society Journal (RCN), 5 (1994/95): 70-81.

McGee, Arlee Hoyt, and Anne-Marie Arseneault. "Traditional Nursing Images and Their Relevance." Registered Nurse (RNAO), 6 (October/November 1994): 18, 27.

McPherson, Kathryn. "Science and Technique: Nurses' Work in a Canadian Hospital, 1920-1939." In Caring and Curing, ed. Dodd and Gorham, 71-101.

McPherson, Kathryn, and Meryn Stuart. "Writing Nursing History in Canada: Issues and Approaches." Canadian Bulletin of Medical History 11 (1994): 3-22.

Nolan, Peter W. "A History of the Training of Asylum Nurses." Journal of Advanced Nursing 18 (August 1993): 1193-1201.

Norman, Elizabeth M., and Sharon Eifried. "How Did They All Survive? An Analysis of American Nurses' Experiences in Japanese Prisoner-of-War Camps." Nursing History Review 3 (1995): 105-127.

Olson, Tom. [Letter to the Editor re: Michele Eliason's reference to historical context in her article "Ethics and Transcultural Nursing Care."] Nursing Outlook 42 (September/October 1994): 243. [see Eliason's reply above].

Olson, Tom. "Exploring the Legacy of Dorothy Mereness and the Evolution of Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing." The Chronicle (Center for the Study of the History of Nursing, School of Nursing) 7 (Fall 1994): 3.

Patai, Frances. "Heroines of the Good Fight: Testimonies of U.S. Volunteer Nurses in the Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939." Nursing History Review 3 (1995): 79-104.

Paul, Pauline. "The Contribution of the Grey Nuns to the Development of Nursing in Canada: Historiographical Issues." Canadian Bulletin of Medical History 11 (1994): 207-217.

Pollitt, Phoebe A. "Goldie Allen: Appalachian Itinerant Red Cross Nurse." Bulletin (AAHN), no. 43 (Summer 1994): 4-6.

Richardson, Sharon L. "The Historical Relationship of the Canadian Association of University Schools of Nursing and the Canadian Nurses Association." Nursing History Review 3 (1995): 213-233.

Ruffing-Rahal, Mary Ann. "The Navajo Experience of Elizabeth Forster, Public Health Nurse." Nursing History Review 3 (1995): 173-188.

Sandilands, John. "Dame Margot Turner." History of Nursing Society Journal (RCN), 4 (1992/93): 333-336.

Saunders, Dame Cicely. "Past, Present and Future Hospice and Palliative Care." History of Nursing Society Journal (RCN), 5 (1994/95): 43-45.

Shaw, Ian, and Glenys Shaw. "Demography, Nursing and Community Care: A Review of the Evidence." Journal of Advanced Nursing 18 (August 1993): 1212-1218.

Shaw, Maureen. "The Discipline of Nursing: Historical Roots, Current Perspectives, Future Directions." Journal of Advanced Nursing 18 (October 1993): 1651-1656.

Strachan, Glenda. "`A Good Nurse Cannot be Bought with Money': The Development of the Professional and Industrial Roles of the Nursing Organization in Queensland, Australia, 1904-1950." Nursing History Review 3 (1995): 235-256.

Stuart, Meryn. "Synopsis of Hannah Lecture." Newsletter (Canadian Association for the History of Nursing/Association Canadienne pour l'Histoire du Nursing (CAHN/ACHN)) 7 (Fall 1994): 3. [The presentation by Eleanor Crowder, President-elect of AAHN, "And Pray, How shall It be Taught: Teaching Nursing History"].

Stuart, Meryn. "Shifting Professional Boundaries: Gender Conflict in Public Health, 1920-1925." In Caring and Curing, ed. Dodd and Gorham, 49-70.

Wall, Barbra Mann. "Courage to Care: The Sisters of the Holy Cross in the Spanish-American War." Nursing History Review 3 (1995): 55-77.

While, Alison E., and K. Louise Barriball. "School Nursing: History, Present Practice and Possibilities Reviewed." Journal of Advanced Nursing 18 (August 1993): 1202-1211.

White, Linda. "Who's in Charge Here? The General Hospital School of Nursing, St. John's Newfoundland, 1903-30." Canadian Bulletin of Medical History 11 (1994): 91-118.

Young, Judith. "A Divine Mission: Elizabeth McMaster and the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, 1875-92." Canadian Bulletin of Medical History 11 (1994): 71-90.

Young, Judith. "`Little Sufferers': Sick Children in Late-Nineteenth-Century Toronto." Nursing History Review 3 (1995): 129-142.

Zerr, Sheila Rankin. "Special Memorial Nursing Portrait Collection Issue 1994." Newsletter (BC History of Nursing Professional Practice Group), 5 (Fall 1994): 1-7.

Ziadat, Adel A. "Western Medicine in Palestine, 1860-1940: The Edinburgh Medical Missionary Society and Its Hospital." Canadian Bulletin of Medical History 10 (1993): 269-279.



The Nursing Archives Associates at the Boston University are seeking members to `share' the `responsibility of preserving the history of nursing.' With membership money, they will be able to acquire, process and make available historical source materials about persons, agencies and institutions. CONTACT: Nursing Archives Associates, Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University, 771 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA. [courtesy of Dr. Shirley Stinson].



Benedict, Frances. A file on Frances Benedict has been added to the RNABC library by the Biographical Committee of the BC History Group. (Newsletter (BC History of Nursing Professional Practice Group), (December 1993): 2).

Paulson, Esther. A file on Esther Paulson has been added to the RNABC library by the Biographical Committee of the BC History Group. (Newsletter (BC History of Nursing Professional Practice Group), (December 1993): 2).

Street, Margaret. A taped interview for the Oral History collection of the RNABC has been placed in the RNABC library. (Newsletter (BC History of Nursing Professional Practice Group), (December 1993): 6).



Armstrong, Pat, Jaqueline Choiniere, and Elaine Day. Vital Signs: Canadian Nursing in Transition. Toronto: Garamond Press, 1993. (CCWH Newsletter (Spring 1994): 8).

Arnup, Katherine. Education for Motherhood: Advice for Mothers in Twentieth-Century Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1994. ISBN 0-8020-2861-6 or 0-8020-7361-1.

Baer, Ellen D. Leonhard Felix Fuld: 19th Century Reformer in a 20th Century World. Monograph Series 93. Indianapolis: Sigma Theta Tau International, 1993.

Berlin, Jean V., ed. A Confederate Nurse: The Diary of Ada W. Bacot, 1860-1863. Columbia, South Carolina: University of South Carolina Press, 1994. ISBN 0-87249-970-7.

Carnegie, Mary Elizabeth. The Path We Tread: Blacks in Nursing, 1854-1990. 2nd ed. New York: National League for Nursing Press, 1991.

Fatchett, Anita. Politics, Policy & Nursing. London: Baillière Tindall, 1994. ISBN 0-7020-1791-4.

Forchuk, C. Hildegarde E. Peplau: Interpersonal Learning Theory. Newbury Park: Sage Publications, 1993. (Newsletter (Nursing Research Interest Group (RNAO)), 8 (March 1994): 5).

Goldenberg, Gary. Nurses of a Different Stripe: A History of the Columbia University School of Nursing 1892-1992. New York: Columbia University School of Nursing, 1992. ISBN 0-9631670-0-6.

Goldin, Grace. Work of Mercy: A Picture History of Hospitals. Erin, Ontario: Associated Medical Services/Boston Mills Press, 1994. ISBN 1-55046-118-4.

Hart, Christopher. Behind the Mask: Nurses, Their Unions and Nursing Policy. London: Baillière Tindall, 1994. ISBN 0-7020-1674-8.

Herrmann, Eleanor K. Origins of Tomorrow: A History of Belizean Nursing Education. Belize, 1985. (Bulletin (AAHN), no. 42 (Spring 1994): 6).

Jeffrey, Betty. White Coolies: Australian Nurses Behind Enemy Lines. Sidney, Australia: Angus & Robertson Imprint, HarperCollins Publishers, 1954; reprint, 1993.

Lipp, Martin R.. Medical Landmarks USA: A Travel Guide to Historic Sites, Architectural Gems, Remarkable Museums and Libraries, and other Places of Health Related Interest. McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1991. (Bulletin (AAHN), no. 42 (Spring 1994): 7).

MacLeod, Charlotte. Had She But Known: A Biography of Mary Roberts Rinehart. New York: The Mysterious Press, 1994. ISBN 0-89296-444-8. [Rinehart, a famous mystery author, graduated in 1896 from the Pittsburgh Homeopathic Hospital].

McGee, Arlee Hoyt. The Strength of One: A History of the New Brunswick Nurses Union. Fredericton: New Brunswick Nurses Union, 1994.

Spaulding, Mary, and Penny Welch. Nurturing Yesterday's Child, A Portrayal of the Drake Collection of Paediatric History ("Book Depicting Rare Collection of Paediatric Artifacts Launched at TTH." Caring (The Toronto Hospital staff newsletter), 6 (29 April 1994): 1.

Sweetman, David. Mary Renault: A Biography. San Diego: Harcourt Brace & Co., 1993. [Renault, an acclaimed writer of historical fiction, graduated from Radcliffe Infirmary in 1936 as Mary Challans].



1995, Apr 1. Sigma Theta Tau is seeking proposals for historical monographs to celebrate its 75th anniversary in 1996. CONTACT: Julliann G. Sebastian, RN, PhD, Chair, 75th Anniversary Committee, Sigma Theta Tau International, 550 West North Street, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202. (Bulletin (AAHN), no.43 (Summer 1994): 9).

1995, May 15. The Canadian Journal of Nursing Research is publishing a special issue on the history of nursing. Guest Editor is Dr. Ina Bramadat. CONTACT: Dr. Laurie Gottlieb, Editor, Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, School of Nursing, McGill University, 3506 University Avenue, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2A7. (Newsletter (CAHN/ACHN), 7 (Fall 1994): 4.



The 1993 entries included Catherine Keith, Evelyn Mallory (1902-1993), Margaret McLean, Margaret Street (1907-1993), and Elizabeth Summers. In 1994, the following were added: Jacqueline Bouchard, Kathleen Ellis, Mabel Gray (1880-1976), Ethel Johns (1879-1968), Hazel Keller, Katherine MacLaggan, Edna Moore, Ruth Morrison (1900-1978), Helen Randal (1876-1963), Edith Russell, and Ruby Simpson. ("Memorial Book Entries." Canadian Nurse 90 (September 1994): 12; and Newsletter (BC History of Nursing Professional Practice Group), 5 (Summer 1994): 2).




Apr 20-21. "Archives on the History of Canadian and Mental Health Services." Annual Conference, Queen Street Mental Health Centre, Toronto, Ontario. CONTACT: Betty Jo Moore, Archivist. Queen Street Mental Health Centre, 1001 Queen St. W., Toronto, Ontario, M6J 1H4.

Apr 27-29. "Many Interests — One Voice." The 69th Annual Meeting of the Registered Nurses' Association of Ontario will launch a year's celebration of its 70th anniversary. (Registered Nurse (RNAO), 6 (December/January 1994/1995): 16, 26.

Apr 30-May 2. "Nursing's Caring Heritage: Pathway to the Future." The 17th Annual International Association for Human Caring Research Conference. CONTACT: Anne Dakes, Center for Continuing Nursing Education and Professional Development, University of Virginia, Box 147, McKim Hall, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908. TEL: 804/982-1685. FAX: 804/924-2451.

May 11-14 American Association for the History of Medicine. Annual meeting in Pittsburgh, PA. CONTACT: Dr. Mary Lindemann, History Department, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213. (Bulletin (AAHN), 43 (Summer 1994): 11).

Jun 2-4. Annual Meeting in Montreal. Canadian Society for the History of Medicine.

Jun 15-17. "Health Care and Culture." The Second International and Interdisciplinary Health Research Symposium. To be held in Morgantown, West Virginia. CONTACT: Janet F. Wang, RN, PhD, Chair, Steering Committee, School of Nursing, West Virginia University, P.O. Box 9610, Morgantown, WV 26506, TEL: 304/293-2331. FAX: 304/293-6826. (Bulletin (AAHN), no. 42 (Spring 1994): 7).

Jun 23-25 "Founders of Modern Nursing." Canadian Association for the History of Nursing/Association Canadienne pour l'Histoire du Nursing (CAHN/ACHN) Eighth Annual Conference. To be held in Toronto. CONTACT: Carol Helmstadter, Research Officer, Ontario Nurses' Association, 85 Grenville St., Suite 600, Toronto, Ont. M5S 3A2. TEL: 416/964-8833. FAX: 416/964-8864.

July 2-9. Mutiny and Medicine: An International Conference on the History of Medicine and Health, to be held at Norfolk Island, in the South Pacific Ocean. Sponsored by the Australian Society for the History of Medicine. CONTACT: Dr. John Thearle, Conference Secretariat, Australian Society for the History of Medicine, Department of Child Health, Mater Children's Hospital, South Brisbane, Queensland 4101, Australia. TEL: 61/07/840-8935. FAX: 61/07/844-9069. [courtesy Dr. Shirley Stinson].

Aug 27-Sept 3. International Federation for Research in Women's History Conference: "Women, Colonialisms, Imperialisms and Nationalisms Through the Ages." To be held in conjunction with the 18th International Congress of Historical Sciences, in Montreal. CONTACT: Andrée Lévesque, Liaison Person, International Groups, CCWH/CCHF, Department of History, McGill University, Montreal, PQ, H2V 4B4. (CCWH/CCHF Newsletter (Fall, 1993): 11).

Sept 28-Oct 1. Twelfth Annual Conference of AAHN. Co-sponsored with University of Arkansas School of Nursing, Little Rock. CONTACT: Dr. Rosemary McCarthy, Executive Director, AAHN, Box 90803, Washington, DC 20090-0803. TEL: 202/543-2127. FAX: 202/543-0724.


June. 9th CAHN/ACHN Annual Conference in Halifax.

June. CNA Conference in Halifax.

Fall. Thirteenth Annual Conference of AAHN. Co-sponsored with the Cleveland Clinic Foundation.


June International Council of Nurses Quadrennial Congress to be held in Vancouver. (Newsletter (CAHN/ACHN), 6 (Fall 1993): [2]).

June. 10th CAHN/ACHN Annual Conference in Vancouver.

Fall Fourteenth Annual Conference of AAHN.


June 11th CAHN/ACHN Annual Conference in Toronto.

June CNA Conference in Toronto.

Fall Fifteenth Annual Conference of AAHN. To be co-sponsored with the University of Mississippi School of Nursing, Jackson, Mississippi.


Fall Sixteenth Annual Conference of AAHN. To be co-sponsored with Boston College, Maryland.


June CNA Conference in Vancouver.

Fall Seventeenth Annual Conference of AAHN. To be co-sponsored with the College of Nursing, Villanova, University, Pennsylvania.


June CNA Conference in St. John's.


June CNA Conference in Regina.



1995, Mar 4-5. "Florence, the Lady with the Lamp" will be presented by Opera in Concert at the Jane Mallett Theatre, St. Lawrence Centre for the Arts. CONTACT: St. Lawrence Centre for the Arts, 416/366-7723.

Angels of Mercy. Produced by Katherine Jeans and Neil Bregman. This tribute to Canadian Nursing Sisters aired on television, November 11, 1994. Approximately 45 minutes in length. (John Haslett Cuff, "Television: Remembering." Globe and Mail (Toronto), 11 November 1994, C1).



The ACOG-ORTHO Fellowship in the History of American Obstetrics and Gynecology. CONTACT: Susan Rishworth, History Librarian, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 409 Twelfth St. SW, Washington, DC 20024-2588. TEL: 202/863-3578. (Bulletin (AAHN)), no. 41 (Winter 1994): 9).

Alice Fisher Society Historical Scholarship for historical research in nursing by nurses at the masters or doctoral level. CONTACT: Dr. Joan Lynaugh, Director, Center for the Study of the History of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, School of Nursing, 307 Nursing Education Building, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6906. TEL: 215/898-4502. (The Chronicle (Center for the Study of the History of Nursing), 6 (Spring 1994): 8).

Canadian Nurses Association. Sources of Funds. Ottawa: CNA, 1993. (Insert in Nursing Research Interest Group (RNAO), 8 (March 1994).

Canadian Nurses Foundation Scholarship and Awards. CONTACT: CNA, 50 Driveway, Ottawa, ON. K2P 1E2. TEL: 613/237-2133. (Canadian Nurse 90 (February 1994): 14).

ICN/3M Annual Scholarship Award for 3 nurses pursuing doctoral, master or baccalaureate studies. CONTACT: The International Council of Nurses Foundation, 3, Place Jean-Marteau, CH-1201 Geneva. TEL: 22-731-29-60 or FAX: 22-738-10-36. (Canadian Nurse 90 (February 1994): 14).

Lillian Sholtis Brunner Summer Fellowship for Historical Research in Nursing. CONTACT: Dr. Joan Lynaugh, Director Center for the Study of the History of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, School of Nursing, 307 Nursing Education Building, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6906. TEL: 215/898-4502. (Bulletin (AAHN), no. 44 (Fall 1994): 10).

The Marta Danylewycz Memorial Fund is administered by the Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women (CRIAW). It promotes work in feminist women's history. CONTACT: CRIAW, 151 Slater Street, Suite 408, Ottawa, Ontario, K1P 5H3. TEL: 613/563-0681. (CCWH/CCHF Newsletter (Fall 1993): 6).

Nursing Research Interest Group (RNAO) Research Awards. The NRIG gives an annual grant to members, who are beginning researchers, for seed money and small research projects. With Carol Helmstadter, a nurse historian, on the executive as a Member-at-Large, NRIG might be interested in historical research. CONTACT: Heather K. Spence Laschinger, RN, PhD, Faculty of Nursing, University of Western Ontario, Room HSA 27, London, Ontario N6A 5C1. TEL: 519/661-3395 x6581; FAX: 519/661-3797 or contact any Dean of Nursing. (Nursing Research Interest Group (RNAO) 8 (March 1994): 8; and 9, no. 1 (n.d.): [2, 3]).



Nursing Archives Fund, Boston University. Copies of the six issues of The Journal of Nursing History (1985-1988) may still be available. You can't go wrong adding the set to your institution's library or your own collection. And the money goes to the nursing archives fund. CONTACT: Helen Sherwin, Nursing Archives Associates, Special Collections, Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University, 771 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, Mass. 02215. TEL: 617/353-3696.



Craig, Barbara L. "Memories and the Memorial: Developing and Managing Nursing Archives for Canada." Canadian Bulletin of Medical History 11, no. 1 (1994): 237-248.

Emery, George. Facts of Life: The Social Construction of Vital Statistics, Ontario 1869-1952. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, c1994. (OHS Bulletin (Ontario Historical Society), no. 91 (May-June 1994): 7).

Fitzpatrick, M. Louis. "Historical Research: The Method." In Nursing Research: A Qualitative Perspective, 2nd ed., ed. Patricia L. Munhall and Carolyn Oiler Boyd, 359-371. New York: National League for Nursing Press, 1993.

Fondiller, Shirley. "Writing for Publication." American Journal of Nursing 94 (August 1994): 62, 64-65.

Fortier, Normand. Guide to Oral History Collections in Canada. Ottawa: Canadian Oral History Association, c1994. (OHS Bulletin (Ontario Historical Society), no. 92 (July-August 1994): 7).

A Guide to Ontario Land Registry Records. Toronto: Ontario Genealogical Society, c1994. (OHS Bulletin, no. 91 (May-June 1994): 7).

Kerr, Janet C. Ross. "Nursing History at the Graduate Level: State of the Art." Canadian Bulletin of Medical History 11 (1994): 229-236.

Laudan, Rachel. "Histories of the Sciences and their Uses: A Review to 1913." History of Science 31 (March 1993): 1-34.

Leininger, Madeleine M. "Life Health-Care History: Purposes, Methods, and Techniques." Chap. in Qualitative Research Methods in Nursing. Orlando, Florida: Grune & Stratton, Inc., 1985

Melnyk, Olenka. What's Cooking in Women's History: An Introductory Guide to Preserving Archival Records about Women. Edmonton: Northern Alberta Women's Archives Association, 1993. (CCWH Newsletter (Spring 1994): 10).

Riegler, Natalie N. "Some Issues to be Considered in the Writing of Biography." Canadian Bulletin of Medical History 11 (1994): 219-27.

Stewart, Alan M. and Bettina Bradbury. "Marriage Contracts as a Source for Historians." In Class, Gender and the Law in Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century Quebec, ed. D. Fryson et al., 29-53, c1993. (CCWH Newsletter (Spring 1994): 10).



Oral histories undertaken by students of Dr. Shirley Stinson, Faculty of Nursing, University of Alberta 1993. All papers have been donated by the authors to the Alberta Association of Registered Nurses Archives.





Bazin, Moira


Laura Attrux, District Nurse Remembered.

Bellstedt, Jean


Eleanora Hibbert (1963-1993): Beginning Oral History.

Henderson, Dianne


Leduc Home Care Program: A Beginning Oral History of Carol Schmidt, 1974-1982.

Ulan, Deborah


Grant MacEwan Community College Nursing Programs, 1971-1977: An Oral History Interview with Sister Theresa Castonguay.

Wooley, Marilyn


A Private Duty Nurse: A Beginning Oral History of Marjorie Langford Stringer, 1937-1942.



Sarah Elizabeth Russell. A one page biography with photograph can be found in Hamilton: Famous and Fascinating by T. M. Bailey and C. A. Carter (Hamilton: W. L. Griffen, 1972), 29. Russell, daughter of Dr. James Russell, medical superintendent of the psychiatric hospital in Hamilton, graduated from the New York Presbyterian Hospital. She volunteered for military service in the Spanish-American war and sailed on the hospital ship "Relief," making nine trips between Cuba, Puerto Rico and the USA. In the South African war, she accompanied the first Canadian contingent. Upon her return to Hamilton she received a gold medal from the Hamilton Red Cross.



The Inez G. Hinsvark Historical Gallery at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee was dedicated on 4 October 1993. Dr. Hinsvark was the first dean of the School of Nursing. (Bulletin (AAHN), no. 41 (Winter 1994): 7.)

Bangka Island off Singapore. A memorial to 22 Australian nurses killed February 1942 by the enemy after the sinking of the SS Vyner Brooke in Bangka Strait. (Newsletter (CAHN/ACHN) 6 (Fall 1993): [3].

The National Women's Hall of Fame, Seneca Falls, New York. In the autumn of 1993, both Mary Mahoney, the first black graduate nurse in the USA, and Lillian Wald, founder of the Henry Street Settlement, New York City, were inducted into the Hall of Fame. ("Women’s Hall of Fame Inducts Two Nurses." (Bulletin (AAHN), no. 40 (Fall 1993): 7.)



All of you will have noticed a change in the Bulletin masthead. The Ontario Society for the History of Nursing has become the Margaret M. Allemang Centre for the History of Nursing, an incorporated body. In order to negotiate with other institutions regarding the saving, protection, and making available of historically important nursing materials, the Society decided to become an official organization. As well, with charitable status allows the Centre to issue income tax receipts for donations and membership fees.

The Centre's mandate is to promote historical inquiry about nursing by,

1. identifying, collecting, cataloguing and preserving historical materials related to nursing.

2. making such materials accessible for examination by scholars and other interested persons.

3. disseminating knowledge on nursing history through meetings, publications and consultations.

We see ourselves as an Ontario group and not in competition with other centres in the province or in Canada. Individuals and associations have the freedom to donate their items to any of the growing number of nursing repositories across the country. We will take in materials which cannot find a home, ensuring that what falls between the gaps is not lost.

We are pleased that Margaret Allemang, RN, PhD, has allowed us to honour her by naming the centre for her. As many of you know, Marg is a co-founder of the Canadian Association for the History of Nursing/Association Canadienne Histoire du Nursing and has tended the flame of nursing history in Ontario and Canada. For the past few years, among her many projects, she has been interviewing Nursing Sisters of both World Wars and her tapes have been used by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation in its Ideas series. We think that everyone will be delighted that she has allowed the centre to carry her name.

With the privilege of calling the centre after Marg comes a responsibility to ensure the permanence and growth of the Centre, keeping in mind, Margaret's breadth of vision for nursing history. To do this means that we must solicit monies for operating costs and endowment funds which will ensure longevity of the organization, provide for chairs of nursing history in universities and scholarships and funds for students and researchers. And we must seek people who can contribute their expertise to the development and running of the Centre. It will be the interest and support of people, through membership and active involvement which will ensure the Centre's survival.



Dalhousie University School of Nursing is having a history written. Barbara Keddy writes that the committee is looking for former faculty members and information about the school. CONTACT: Carol Smillie, Chair, History Committee, School of Nursing, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 3J5. (Newsletter (CAHN/ACHN), 7 (Fall 1994): 2.)

Information Superhighway. Interested in accessing a "nursing gopher?" Contact Janet Fickeissen, AAHN Secretary at JersyJan She has information about NIGHTINGALE that can be accessed as (Bulletin (AAHN), no. 44 (Fall 1994): 11).

University of Oxford, Wellcome Unit for the History of Medicine is looking for information about medical refugees who arrived in Great Britain from continental Europe during the 1930s and 1940s. The contribution of nurses will be included among the health professionals to be documented in this project, "A Biographical Database of Medical Refugees in Britain 1930-1960." CONTACT: Dr. Karola Decker or Dr. Paul Weindling, 45-47 Banbury Road, Oxford OX2 6PE. TEL: 0865-274600. FAX: 0865-274605. (History of Nursing Society Journal (RCN), 5 (1994/95): 110.)



American Association for the History of Nursing:

The following papers were to be presented in Chicago at the annual conference during September 23-25, 1994.

Birnbach, Nettie, and Julie Pavri. "The Brooklyn Visiting Nurse Association: One Hundred and Five Years of Service."

Boschma, Geertje. "Creating an Independent Nursing Association: Agnes Karll's Leadership in German Nursing, 1900-1927."

Brophy, Selma. "Contributions of Loraine Dennhardt to the Development of Nursing."

Bullough, Bonnie, and Vern Bullough. "Nurses and Sex Education: An Historical Overview."

Brunk, Quincealea. "In Search of the South's Founding Mothers: Nurses of the Confederacy."

Connolly, Elaine. "The Civil War Poetry of Walt Whitman: Poetic Art Reflecting Nursing Art."

Cooper, Signe. "Glimpses of our Heritage: Discovering Wisconsin's Nurses."

Cramer, Susan. "`An Unacceptable Morsel': Frances Payne Bolton's Struggle for Lay Inclusion within the Profession of Nursing."

Doona, Mary Ellen. "Linda Richards and Japan: 1885-1890."

Fickeissen, Janet. "A Review of the First Decade of AAHN Conferences on Nursing History, 1984-1993."

Hanson, Kathleen, and M. Patricia Donahue. "The Diary as Historical Evidence: The Case of Sarah Gallop Gregg."

Hawkins, Joellen W., Peggy S. Matteson, and Nancy W. Veeder. "Lessons from the Past, Models for the Future: Women's Preeminence in the Settlement House Movement."

Keeling, Arlene W. "From Snake Bites to Flux: The Care of the Sick on the Overland Trail, 1840-1860."

Lundeen. Jan M. "The Nursing Shortage 1930-1960: A Sociological Analysis of Power and Politics in Health Care."

Lusk, Brigid. "Chicago Nurses' Professional Organizations, 1929-1934: The Splendid Contribution."

Matteson-Kane, Maureen, and Margaret Louis. "Nursing History — Does It make a Difference?"

McNeely, A. Gretchen. "From Untrained Nurses Toward Professional Preparation in Montana, 1912-1987."

Paul, Pauline, and Janet Ross Kerr. "The Power Exercised by Nursing in a Physician-Dominated Health Care System: The Case of the Edmonton General Hospital: 1925-1975."

Richardson, Sharon. "The Historical Relationship of Nursing Program Accreditation and Public Policy in Canada."

Sacharski, Susan. "They Gave Willingly: Nursing in the 12th General Hospital, 1917-1945."

Sarnecky, Mary T. "From Whence We Came: A Story of the Predecessors of the Army Nurse Corps."

Simpkins, Lynn H. "`The Silent White Plague': Tuberculosis in Student Nurses, 1900-1940s."

Waits, Jeanette. "Eliza Parish Pillars: Pioneer Mississippi Public Health Nurse."

Wall, Barbara M. "Courage to Care: The Sisters of the Holy Cross in the Spanish-American War."

Weddle, Carriette. "History of the Wisconsin State Nurses Association Legislative Committee, 1909-1939."

Zimmerman, Anne. "Making Choices: An Experiential Perspective on Nursing History" [Keynote Address].


Faculty of Nursing (University of Alberta):

Historical papers written by students of Dr. Shirley Stinson for a course in Trends, Issues and Problems, in 1993. All papers except those by Squire, Ulan and Wedderburn have been placed in the Alberta Association of Registered Nurses Archives.

Bazin, Moira. "Annotated Bibliography: [History of] District Nursing in Alberta.

Bellstedt, Jean. "Beginning Inventory of Rehabilitation Nursing [Archival Items] at the Glenrose Rehabilitation Hospital, 1963-1975."

Harvey, Cathy. "Contributions of the Alberta Association of Registered Nurses to Continuing Education, 1920 to 1930: A Beginning History."

Krell, Kari. "A Beginning Inventory of Archives and Museum Materials of the Misericordia Sisters, the Misericordia Hospital, and the Misericordia School of Nursing in Edmonton from 1900 to 1986."

Squire, Jane. "Beginning Inventory on [U of Alberta Hospital School of Nursing's] Committee on Committee Documents.

Tarnowski, Barbara. "A Beginning Inventory of the AARN Archives' Alberta Nurses for Global Health through Peace."

Tarnowski, Barbara. "Alberta Nurses for Nuclear Disarmament: A Beginning History of an Interest Group."

Ulan. Deborah. "[History of] College-Based Nursing Education [with Special Reference to Alberta]" Beginning Annotated Bibliography."

Wedderburn, Ann-Carol. "Nursing and the Woman's Suffrage Movement: A Beginning History."


International Nursing Research Conference: To be presented during May 1994 in Vancouver as part of the 75th anniversary celebrations of UBC School of Nursing.

Zerr, Sheila. Will present a paper on history of nursing. (Newsletter (BC History of Nursing Professional Practice Group), (December 1993): 3).


Nursing Archives Associates (Boston University). Presented at the annual meeting:

Lopez, Maureen Tully. "Reflections on an Era: Oral Histories of Army Nurses in New Guinea in World War II." On April 9, 1992. (Nursing Archives News (Nursing Archives Associates, Boston University), 9 (September 1992): 1).

Morrison, Linda M. "A Different War: Nursing in World War II." On April 14, 1994. (Notice from the Nursing Archives Associates, Boston University).



One nurse: Alice Margaret MacKinnon, N/S World War I, is shown with Queen Elizabeth. ("Victoria rolls out Royal Carpet." Toronto Star, 16 August 1994, A10).

Three nurses: Dr. Helen Mussallem, Lt-Col. (ret.) Hallie Sloan and Dr. Meryn Stuart in front of the Canadian Nurses’ Memorial in the Parliament Buildings, Ottawa. This picture was taken on November 11, 1993 at the laying of flowers for Remembrance Day. (Canadian Nurse 90 (January 1994): 8).

Four nurses: graduates of 1917. (Nora Hammell. "Heading for the Year 2000." Part 1. CNA Today 4 (February 1994):3; and Nora Hammell. "Vers l’an 2000." Première partie. AIIC Aujourd'hui 4 (Février 1994: 3).



Labour/Le Travail. Published since 1976. This publication of the Canadian Committee on Labour History is interested in Canadian working-class history. CONTACT: Gregory S. Kealey, editor, c/o History Department, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's NF, A1C 5S7. TEL: 709/737-2144; FAX: 709/737-4569 or 737-2164.

Medical History. A quarterly journal devoted to the history of medicine and related sciences. Published by the Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine, 183 Euston Road, London, NW1 2BE, England. (courtesy of Marianne Tallberg).



Provided by Dr. Shirley Stinson for graduate students in a course on advanced trends and issues in nursing given at the University of Alberta, Edmonton. (Bulletin (CAHN/ACHN) 6 (Fall 1993): [4]).

Oral History

Bennett, James. "Human Values in Oral History." Oral History Review 11 (1983): 1-15.

Crawford, Charles W. "Oral History — The State of the Profession." Oral History Review (1974): 1-9.

Donahue, Elizabeth M. "Preserving History through Oral History Reflections." Journal of Gerontological Nursing 8 (May 1982): 272-278.

Dunaway, David King. "Transcription: Shadow or Reality?" Oral History Review 12 (1984): 113-117.

Frisch, Michael H. A Shared Authority: Essays on the Craft and Meaning of Oral and Public History. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1990.

Gardner, Joel. "Oral History and Video in Theory and Practice." Oral History Review 12 (1984): 105-111.

Jensen, Richard. "Oral History, Quantification, and the New Social History." Oral History Review 9 (1981): 13-25.

Safier, Gwendolyn. "Oral Life History with the Elderly." Journal of Gerontological Nursing 2 (September/October 1976): 17-22.

Safier, Gwendolyn. "Research Q and A: What is Oral History?" Nursing Research 25 (September/October 1976): 383-385.

Safier, Gwendolyn. Contemporary American Leaders in Nursing: An Oral History. pp. 30-58. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1977.

Treleven, Dale E. "Oral Historians: Masters of or Slaves to Technology." Oral History Review 12 (1984): 101-104.


Provided by Dr. Marianne Tallberg, Department of Nursing, University of Kuopio, Finland. Included are comments by Marianne:

Short readings from a nursing viewpoint

Christy, Teresa E. "The Methodology of Historical Research: A Brief Introduction." Nursing Research 24 (May/June 1975): 189-192. [Marianne — marvellous and unbeatable].

Church, Olga Maranjian. "Using Historical Sources." In Nursing Research: Theory and Practice, ed. Nancy Fugate Woods and Marci Catanzaro, 348-352. St. Louis: C. V. Mosby, 1988.

Fox, David J. "The Historical Approach." Chap. in Fundamentals of Research in Nursing. 4th ed., Norwalk, Connecticut: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1982.

Glass, Laurie K. "Historical Research." In Advanced Design in Nursing Research. ed. Pamela J. Brink and Marilynn Wood, 183-200. Newbury Park: Sage Publications, 1989.

Kelly, Ann Wilde, and A. Marilyn Sime. "Language as Research Data: Application of Computer Content Analysis in Nursing Research." Advances in Nursing Science 12 (April 1990): 32-40.

Kerr, Janet C. "Historical Nursing Research." In International Issues in Nursing Research, ed. Shirley M. Stinson and Janet C. Kerr, 28-40. London: Croom Helm, 1986.

Kruman, Marc W. "Historical Method: Implications for Nursing Research." In Qualitative Research Methods in Nursing, ed. Madeleine M. Leininger, 109-118. Orlando, Florida: Grune and Stratton, 1985.

Matejski, Myrtle. "Historical Research: The Method." In Nursing Research: A Qualitative Perspective, ed. Patricia L. Munhall and Carolyn J. Oiler, 175-193. Norwalk, Connecticut: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1986.

Sarnechy, Mary T. "Historiography: A Legitimate Research Methodology for Nursing." Advances in Nursing Science 12 (July 1990): 1-10.


Various views on historical method

Burke, Peter, ed. New Perspectives on Historical Writing. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1991. [ed.— also published by University Park, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1992].

Cannon, John, ed. The Historian at Work. London: Allen and Unwin, 1980.

Clarke, Edwin, ed. Modern Methods in the History of Medicine. London: Athlone Press, University of London, 1971.

Cohen, Louis, and Lawrence Manion. Research Methods in Education. London: Croom Helm, 1980. [ed.— there is a 3rd ed. 1989].

Collingwood, Robin George. The Idea of History. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1946; reprint, 1980. [ed.— there is a revised ed. by Jan Van Der Dussen, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993].

Gottschalk, Louis R. Understanding History: A Primer of Historical Method. 2nd ed. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1969. [Marianne — I like this one].

King, Preston, ed. The History of Ideas: An Introduction to Method. London: Croom Helm, 1983.

LaCapra, Dominick. History of Criticism. London/Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1985.

Le Roy Ladurie, Emmanuel. The Mind and Method of the Historian. Translated by Sian Reynolds and Ben Reynolds. Brighton: The Harvester Press, 1981.

Lloyd, Christopher. Explanation in Social History. Oxford/New York: Basil Blackwell, 1986.

Dex, Shirley, ed. "Life and Work History Analyses: Qualitative and Quantitative Developments." Sociological Review Monograph 37. London/New York: Routledge, 1991.

Porter, Dale H. The Emergence of the Past: A Theory of Historical Explanation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981.

Vovelle, Michel. Ideologies and Mentalities. Translated by Eamon O'Flaherty. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1990.


"Technical" methods

Jarausch, Konrad H., and Kenneth A. Hardy. Quantitative Methods for Historians: A Guide to Research, Data, and Statistics. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991.

Reiff, Janice L. Structuring the Past: The Use of Computers in History. Washington, DC: American Historical Association, 1991.


Oral history

Allen, Barbara, and William Lynwood Montell. From Memory to History: Using Oral Sources in Local Historical Research. Nashville, Tennessee: American Association for State and Local History, 1981.

Morgan, David L. "Focus Groups as Qualitative Research." Qualitative Research Methods. Vol 16. Newbury Park: Sage Publications, 1988. [Marianne — interesting method for historical interviews].

Vansina, Jan. Oral Tradition as History. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985. [ed. — translated by H.M. Wright for the London: Routledge & Keger Paul, 1965 edition].



Allemang, Margaret M. Review of The Medical Enlightenment of the Eighteenth Century, by Andrew Cunningham and Roger French. In Nursing History Review 3 (1995): 289-291.

Baly, Monica E. Review of Caring for Health: History and Diversity, by Charles Webster, ed. In History of Nursing Society Journal (RCN), 4 (1992/93): 337-338.

Baly, Monica E. Review of Chief Nursing Officer Positions in National Ministries of Health: Focal Points for Nursing Leadership, by Richard B. Splane, and Verna Huffman Splane. In History of Nursing Society Journal (RCN), 5 (1994/95): 113-114.

Bator, Paul. Review of "Nations are Built of Babies": Saving Ontario's Mothers and Children 1900-1940, by Cynthia R. Comacchio. In Ontario History 86 (September 1994): 284-285.

Bell, Pegge L. Review of The Science of Woman: Gynecology and Gender in England, 1800-1929, by Ornella Moscucci. In Bulletin (AAHN), no. 44 (Fall, 1994): 6-7.

Crowley, Terry. Review of Facts of Life: The Social Construction of Vital Statistics, Ontario 1869-1952, by George Emery. In Ontario History 86 (September 1994): 287-288.

D'Antonio, Patricia. Review of Suggestions for Thought by Florence Nightingale: Selections and Commentaries, by Michael D. Calabria and Janet A. Macrae, eds. In The Chronicle (Center for the Study of the History of Nursing), 6 (Spring 1994): 7.

Desjardins, Rita. Review of Les infirmières. De la vocation à la profession, by André Petitat. In Canadian Bulletin of Medical History 11 (1994): 256-257.

Doona, Mary Ellen. Review of Pioneer Healers: The History of Women Religious in American Health Care, by Ursala Stepsis and Dolores Liptak. Nursing Archives News (Nursing Archives Associates, Boston University), 8 (December 1990): 2.

Dunn, Barbara H. Review of Federalism and Health Policy: The Development of Health Systems in Canada and Australia, by Gwendolyn Gray. In Nursing History Review 3 (1995): 284-285.

Fitzpatrick, M. Louise. Review of Nurses of a Different Stripe: A History of the Columbia University School of Nursing, 1892-1992, by Gary Goldenberg. In Nursing History Review 3 (1995): 268-269.

Heap, Ruby. Review of `Take Counsel with One Another': A Beginning History of the Canadian Association of University Schools of Nursing, by Rondalyn Kirkwood and Jeannette Bouchard. In Canadian Bulletin of Medical History 11 (1994): 253-256.

King, Marilyn. Review of Preventive Medicine in the United States, 1900-1990: Trends and Interpretations, by Bonnie Bullough and George Rosen. In Nursing History Review 3 (1995): 258-260.

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"Science, indeed has wrought much within the last score of years, but is it not also true that the success which has crowned her efforts to some extent at least within the realm of scientific medicine and antiseptic surgery, has only been possible through the attention to details that is the requisite of absolute cleanliness, and the intelligence and care brought to bear in their administration, such as is found under a perfected system of nurse training?"

Mary Agnes Snively, Presidential Address,

American Society of Superintendents,

Toronto, 9 February 1898



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