Margaret M Allemang Centre for the History of Nursing
Bulletin Description Bulletin Archives Membership
Description Bulletin Archives Membership





Margaret M. Allemang Centre for Nursing History

Editor: Natalie Riegler, RN, PhD. 3 Dromore Crescent, Willowdale, Ontario, M2R 2H4.
TEL: 416-221-5632 E-MAIL:



Bator, Paul Adolphus, and Andrew James Rhodes. Within Reach of Everyone: A History of the University of Toronto School of Hygiene and the Connaught Laboratories. Vol 1, 1927 to 1955. Ottawa: Canadian Public Health Association, 1990. 243 pp.

Each one of us will have different reasons for remembering both the Connaught Labs and the School of Hygiene at the University of Toronto. Our memories will include insulins, diphtheria toxoid immunization programs, doctors, such as, John Fitzgerald, Robert Defries and Milton Brown, the East York-Leaside Health Unit experiment in medical education, and courses in public health. Information about such people and events can be found in this history of the School's first twenty-eight years and the Connaught Labs which was established in 1914.

The six chapters are well documented. They move from a discussion on early public health reform in general, through the era of Fitzgerald, first director 1927-1940, the efforts of Defries, second director 1941-1955, the partnership of the School with the University's Faculty of Medicine and the Connaught Medical Research Laboratories 1945-1955, the development of the Hospital Administration department 1947-1955, and finally to the work in nutrition, parasitology and virology 1945-1955. The appendices include names of the graduates from the school, the graduate degrees awarded, and the staff. The volume closes with the year 1955; the following year, 1956, separate directors were appointed for each organization and, as Bator notes, the era of "close relationships between the School and the Laboratories" came to an end.

Though Dr. A. J. Rhodes appears as a co-author, the book has been written by Bator; Rhodes advised and assisted in "drafting the text." The School's history is based on both Defries's writings and previously unavailable archival sources. In this book, Bator brings interest, experience and knowledge gained from his doctoral thesis, "`Saving Lives on the Wholesale Plan': Public Health Reform in the City of Toronto, 1900 to 1930." As for the title of this work, "Within the Reach of Everyone," it was coined by Dr. Gordon Bates in 1915 as a tribute to Fitzgerald's establishment of a laboratory which put the diphtheria antitoxin "within reach of everyone."

Because of the historical association between the School of Hygiene and the development of public health nursing at the University of Toronto, I searched the index and text for references to nurses and nursing. If you want to know about the Department of Public Health Nursing at the University you will have to read Helen Carpenter's monograph on Kathleen Russell and Lynn Kirkwood's doctoral thesis "The Development of University Nursing Education in Canada, 1920-1975: Two Case Studies." However, Bator does provide ten index entries related to public health nurses and nursing and another unlisted thirteen references. Most of the content in these cry out for further research by students of nursing history.

The development of public health nursing in the City of Toronto is briefly mentioned and credited to Dr. Charles Hastings, who became the Medical Officer of Health for the City of Toronto in 1910. Bator writes that Hastings inaugurated, in his first year, a "plan of public health nursing . . . to provide basic health care for working class infants, children and mothers"; as for Eunice Dyke, the head of the City of Toronto's division of Public Health Nursing, Bator, citing Marion Royce's biography of Dyke, refers only to her as developing an "`in house' training system" and being a "strong advocate of the need for special courses at a university." Though the inclusion of Dyke's work is not central to Bator's thesis, nevertheless, in mentioning her name only in relation to public health nursing education, he minimizes her development of the nursing service within Hastings's public health department.

Bator writes that establishing a centre for public health nursing education at the university after the First World War became a priority for "Toronto's health educators." He does not say who these educators were, but my research shows it to have been a priority of nurse educators and administrators with the support of a service agency, the Ontario Red Cross Society. Jean Gunn had recommended to the Red Cross, as an officer of that organization and in consultation with a committee from the Graduate Nurses Association of Ontario (the forerunner of the RNAO), that it "approach the University of Toronto regarding the establishment of a course in public health nursing." She had made this request already, as president of the Canadian National Association for Trained Nurses (the precursor of the CNA).

Public health nursing was recognized, Bator point out, as an important part of the health care system and of the student enrolment at the School. In 1922, citing Fitzgerald's book on preventive medicine, Bator notes that Fitzgerald called for "the adoption of a system of free state-supported health supervision" which included nursing along with medicine and dentistry. Later, in 1930, Fitzgerald's colleague, Dr. Donald T. Fraser, in reaction to criticism that the School was producing either "superdoctors" or "sub-doctors," noted that nurses, "when properly educated, played an invaluable role in the delivery of municipal and rural health services." Later, in May 1943, Defries recommended, in a brief which he presented on behalf of the Canadian Public Health Association to the House of Commons Social Security committee, that nurses receive fellowships for public health training. Until 1945, Bator continues, "public health nurses . . . constituted the second major category of students" after medical undergraduates and postgraduates. Despite these accolades, the role of the public health nurse was not adequately understood and in 1947, Bator adds, the American Public Health Association, in their accreditation of the School, criticized it for the "small amount of time alloted to the study of the role of public health nursing."

Though some women scientists are mentioned, this book is primarily about the role men, and in particular medical doctors, had in the development of public health in Toronto and Ontario. Four nurses are listed in the index; three receive minor attention: Margaret Cahoon, Eunice Dyke, and Kathleen Russell. It is Eugenie Stuart who receives four pages of attention, a recognition comparable to that given by Bator to some of the medical doctors. The short biography of Stuart is based on both information from Defries, written in 1948, and Professor Ron McQueen of the Hospital Administration Department. A full page portrait and a full page photograph with students emphasizes the importance of Stuart to the School. In 1948, after obtaining a Bachelor of Science in Hospital Administration at Chicago's Northwestern University, Stuart was appointed temporarily, "to supplement the part-time services" of another teacher. Then in 1951, after gaining a Master of Hospital Administration and experience in teaching at McGill University, she joined the School and was "promoted to assistant professor" in the Hospital Administration department. Three years later, Dr. Harvey Agnew recommended she be made an associate professor, arguing that if she had to be replaced with a man "we would need to pay him considerably more." Bator points out that Stuart's contribution to the School included developing the "use of audio-visual aids in instruction" and "improving the educational role of hospitals in communities"; according to Agnew, with whom she worked, at the same time that Stuart acted as a "mother confessor to succeeding classes," she had the "necessary specialized training and executive ability" and gave "one of the best organized courses" in the department.

I found some irritating points in Bator's work which can be eliminated in the revision and prevented in the second volume. He suffers from the dilemma of how to refer to women--throughout the book he designates women with née, Miss or Mrs. and, in one instance, when mentioning the one female physician in a class of males, he adds that her "married name became McMaster." This style of address is inappropriate in today's scholarly work; unless knowledge of the marital status contributes to the story, it should be eliminated. Secondly, he may have an anachronism in writing that during the influenza epidemic of 1918, there was a "widespread reliance on nurses and nursing assistants." The use of the term "nursing assistants" in 1918 is misleading. According to Jessie Young, the first instructor in a formal nursing assistant educational program in Toronto, nursing assistants were first trained in 1941. Though many people volunteered to provide nursing care for patients with influenza in 1918, they should not be referred to as "nursing assistants." Thirdly, there are some typographical errors, for example, the reference for Fitzgerald's article "General Outline of the Problem of Training Health Workers" is missing in the footnote; it would be nice to know the source of Bator's statement that in 1939 the requirements for minimal qualifications for health officers were "imposed on public health nurses and sanitary inspectors"; and the indexed reference to M. Cahoon should be page 135, not page 13.

Finally, this is a book to be read by the dipping method--selecting the areas of interest, rather than perusing it from cover to cover. In providing us with an encyclopedia of people, events and buildings, Bator has pulled together data which will provide social and medical context for nurses and other health historians. It is a book which should be within reach of anyone interested in the history of public health in Ontario.


The Academy of Medicine in Toronto sold its building at the north-east corner of Huron and Bloor Streets and transferred its library and museum to the Toronto Hospital (the merged TGH and TWH). Some books have gone to the Fisher Rare Book Room at the University of Toronto. In selling the house, the Academy has become debt free and will continue to pursue non-history interests.

The Alberta Association of Registered Nurses Archives now holds the Canadian University Nursing Students Association (CUNSA) Archives and the papers of Dr. Shirley Stinson. The donation of the CUNSA material resulted from Luc Therrien's oral history work with members of the association. [courtesy of Dr. Shirley Stinson].

Allderidge, Patricia. "The Bethlem Royal Hospital Museum." History of Nursing Journal (Royal College Of Nursing (RCN)), 4 (1992/93): 199-202.

Dabbs, Toni. "Swiss Museum is a Tribute to Human Mercy." Globe and Mail (Toronto), 17 March 1993, D4. When travelling to Geneva stop in at the International Museum of the Red Cross, 17 Avenue de la Paix.

McGann, Susan. "The Archives of the Royal College of Nursing." History of Nursing Journal (RCN), 4 (1992/93): 117-124.

Mietkiewicz, Henry. "Archives Wants Us to get in Touch with History." Toronto Star, 24 April 1993, K6. Among other things, Mietkiewicz writes that the Archives of Ontario has videos of Susan Nelles's testimony to the inquiry regarding the deaths of children at the Hospital for Sick Childrens. And, for those interested in social context, it has a full set of Eaton catalogues dating from the 1880s.

Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine has re-opened. It is located in the Wellcome Building, 183 Euston Road, London, NW1 2BE. TEL: 071-611 8888 or FAX:: 071-611 8545. The archives of the National Association of Masters and Matrons of Workhouses, which was founded in 1898, are located in the Contemporary Medical Archives Centre at Wellcome. (History of Nursing Society Journal (RCN), 4 (1992/93): 142, 220.)



Abrams, Sarah E. "Brilliance and Bureaucracy: Nursing and Changes in the Rockefeller Foundation, 1915-1930." Nursing History Review (American Association for the History of Nursing (AAHN)), 1 (1993): 119-137.

Adams, John. "Master and Matron: Work and Marriage in the Public Assistance Institution." History of Nursing Society Journal (RCN), 4 (1992/93): 125-130.

Arton, Michael. "The Chapple Amendment: Parliamentary Intervention and the General Nursing Council." History of Nursing Society Journal (RCN), 4 (1992/93): 178-183.

Baly, Monica. "The Lonsdale Affair: A Nineteenth Century Struggle for Nurse Power." History of Nursing Society Journal (RCN), 4 (1992/93): 213-220.

Bash, Deborah M. "The Midwives Shifra and Puah: Biblical Heroines." Bulletin (AAHN), 37 (Winter 1993): 7.

Bell, Pegge L. "`Making Do' with the Midwife: Arkansas's Mamie O. Hale in the 1940s." Nursing History Review (AAHN), 1 (1993): 155-169.

Benson, Evelyn R. "On the Other Side of the Battle: Russian Nurses in the Crimean War." Image 24 (Spring 1992): 65-68.

Bramadat, Ina J., and Marion I. Saydak. "Nursing on the Canadian Prairies, 1900-1930: Effects of Immigration." Nursing History Review (AAHN), 1 (1993): 105-117.

Brown, Janie. "The History of Australian Nursing.....The Beginning." Bulletin (AAHN), No. 39 (Summer 1993): 1-2.

Brush, Barbara L. "`Exchangees' or Employees?: The Exchange Visitor Program and Foreign Nurse Immigration to the United States, 1945-1990." Nursing History Review (AAHN), 1 (1993): 171-180.

Buhler-Wilkerson, Karen. "Guarded by Standards and Directed by Strangers: Charleston, South Carolina's Response to a National Health Care Agenda, 1920-1930." Nursing History Review (AAHN), 1 (1993): 139-154.

Bullough, Vern L. "A New Phase." Journal of Professional Nursing 9 (January-February 1993): 3. [courtesy of Moira Lynch

Bullough, Vern L. "History, Insights, and History," Journal of Professional Nursing 9 (May-June 1993): 128. [courtesy of Moira Lynch].

Bullough, Vern L., and Bonnie Bullough. "Medieval Nursing." Nursing History Review (AAHN), 1 (1993): 89-104.

Chaney, Judith A., and Patrick Folk. "A Profession in Caricature: Changing Attitudes Toward Nursing in the American Medical News, 1960-1989." Nursing History Review (AAHN), 1 (1993): 181-202.

D'Antonio, Patricia O'Brien. "The Legacy of Domesticity: Nursing in Early Nineteenth-Century America." Nursing History Review (AAHN), 1 (1993): 229-246.

Dieckmann, Janna L., "From Almshouse to City Nursing Home: Philadelphia's Riverview Home for the Aged, 1945-1965." Nursing History Review (AAHN), 1 (1993): 217-228.

Fox, Enid. "The Character of District Nursing in the 1930s." History of Nursing Society Journal (RCN), 4 (1992/93): 143-147.

Green, Margaret. "Fifty Years of Reform: Part 3: Towards Project 2000." History of Nursing Society Journal (RCN), 4 (1992/93): 162-166.

Greene, John. "Birth of an Association." History of Nursing Society Journal (RCN), 4 (1992/93): 203-209. [about the Association of Hospital Matrons and the Association of Nurse Administrators].

Helmstadter, Carol. "Old Nurses and New: Nursing in the London Teaching Hospitals Before and After the Mid-Nineteenth-Century Reforms." Nursing History Review (AAHN), 1 (1993): 43-70.

Herrman, Eleanor Krohn. "The Dying Art of Bandaging." Western Journal of Nursing Research 14 (December 1992): 791-795.

Hoeman, Shirley P., and Mary A. Repetto. "Legislation and Children with Special Needs from 1903 to 1990." Western Journal of Nursing Research 14 (February 1992): 102-105.

Keddy, Barbara, Judy Glennie, Trudy Larsen, Pat Mallory, and Marg Story. "The Personal is Political: A Feminist Analysis of the Social Control of Rank-and-File-Nurses in Canada in the 1920s and 1930s." History of Nursing Society Journal (RCN), 4 (1992/93): 167-172.

"The Late Miss G. E. Trebble--Winchester Nursing Sister: Portrait of a Nurse in the Inter War Period." History of Nursing Society Journal (RCN), 4 (1992/93): 210-212.

Lewenson, Sandra. "Edith Cavell, 1865-1915: Educator, Administrator, Heroine." Courier (Teachers College Columbia University), (Summer 1992): 8-9. [courtesy of Dr. Shirley Stinson].

Lipson, Juliene G. "Esther Lucile Brown--A Memorial." Image 24 (Winter 1992): 313-317.

Nolan, Peter. "Trained for What? A History of Mental Nursing and Its Training." History of Nursing Society Journal (RCN), 4 (1992/93): 131-142.

Olson, Thomas Craig. "Laying Claim to Caring: Nursing and the Language of Training, 1915-1937." Nursing Outlook 41 (March/April 1993): 68-72.

Organek, Nancy S. "Role Theory and Parent-Infant Interaction." Western Journal of Nursing Research 14 (August 1992): 520-5525.

Paul, Pauline, and Kathyrn M. King. "`Remember Nurse Cavell'!" CONA (Canadian Orthopaedic Nurses' Association), 14 (Winter 1992): 8-11. [courtesy of Dr. Shirley Stinson].

Rowling, Ann. "A Village School Perspective." History of Nursing Society Journal (RCN) 4 (1992/93): 192-198. [about school nursing].

Schell, Ellen. "The Origins of Geriatric Nursing: The Chronically Ill Elderly in Almshouses and Nursing Homes, 1900-1950." Nursing History Review (AAHN), 1 (1993): 203-216.

Sines, David. "Residential Care for People with Mental Handicap: An Historical Perspective 1830-1978." History of Nursing Society Journal (RCN), 4 (1992/93): 148-161.

Stuart, Meryn E. "Nursing: The Endangered Profession." Canadian Nurse 89 (April 1993): 19-22.

Steppe, Hilde. "Nursing in Nazi Germany." Western Journal of Nursing Research 14 (December 1992): 744-753.

Strumpf, Neville E., and Nancy Tomes. "Restraining the Troublesome Patient: A Historical Perspective on the Contemporary Debate." Nursing History Review (AAHN), 1 (1993): 3-24.

Wall, Barbra Wall. "Grace Under Pressure: The Nursing Sisters of the Holy Cross, 1861-1865." Nursing History Review (AAHN), 1 (1993): 71-87.

Widerquist, JoAnn G. "`Dearest Friend': The Correspondence of Colleagues Florence Nightingale and Mary Jones." Nursing History Review (AAHN), 1 (1993): 25-42.



The History of Nursing Professional Practice Group in British Columbia has established a BC History of Nursing Scholarship. This fund is registered as a charity and any donor will receive a tax receipt for income tax purposes.

The Canadian Committee on Women's History was formed in 1975 to promote teaching and research in the field of women's history. See attached membership form [courtesy of Dr. Shirley Stinson].



Interagency Council on Library Resources. Guide to Archival Sources in Nursing. New York: The Council, 1989.

Baly, Monica, ed. As Miss Nightingale Said . . .. London: Scutari Press, 1991.

Bullough, Vern L., and Bonnie Bullough. Cross Dressing, Sex, and Gender. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, c1992.

Daniels, D. G. Always a Sister: The Feminism of Lillian D. Wald. New York: Feminist Press at the City University of New York, 1989.

Fortuine, Robert. Chills and Fever: Health and Disease in the Early History of Alaska. University of Alaska Press, 1992.

Kraegel, J., and M. Kachoyeanos. Just a Nurse: The Lives and Experiences of Nurses in America. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1989.

McDonald, C.S.J., Irene. For the Least of My Brethern: A Centenary History of St. Michael's Hospital. Toronto: Dundurn Press, 1992.

McGann, Susan. The Battle of the Nurses: A Study of Eight Women Who Influenced the Development of Professional Nursing, 1880-1930. London: Scutari Press, 1992.

McNeil, Bill. "Nursing." Chapt. in Voices of a War Remembered: An Oral History of Canadians in World War Two. Toronto: Doubleday Canada Limited, 1991.

Nightingale, Florence. Notes on Nursing: What It Is, and What It Is Not. Commemorative Edition with Introduction and Commentaries by Contemporary Nursing Leaders. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1992.

Robertson, Betty, Catherine Marcellus, and Betty Dandy. Mission's Living Memorials. British Columbia: Mission Hospital, 1992.

Schorr, T. M., and A. Zimmerman. Making Choices, Taking Chances: Nurse Leaders Tell Their Stories. St. Louis: C. V. Mosby, 1988.

Skretkowicz, Victor, ed. Florence Nightingale's Notes on Nursing. London: Scutari Press, 1992.

Stepsis, U., and D. Liptak. Pioneer Healers: The History of Women Religious in U.S. Health Care. New York: Crossroad Publishing Co., 1989.

Ulrich, L. T. A Midwife's Tale: The Life of Martha Ballard, Based on her Diary, 1785-1812. New York: Vintage Books, Random House, 1990.

Valverde, Mariana. The Age of Light, Soap, and Water: Moral Reform in English Canada, 1885-1925. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart Inc., 1991.



Canadian Society for the History of Medicine meeting to be held in conjunction with the Learned Societies Conference June 10-12, 1994. Abstracts due October 11, 1993. Contact: Professor Barry Edginton, Department of Sociology, University of Winnipeg, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3B 2E9. TEL: 204/786-9270 or FAX: 204/775-7081. 

Canadian Association for the History of Nursing/Association Canadienne Pour L'Histoire Du Nursing meeting to be held June 17-19, 1994. Abstracts due November 1, 1993. Contact: Sandra L. Bassendowski, 155 Windfield Road, Regina, Saskatchewan, S4V 0E9.

Faculty of Nursing, University of Toronto is holding Research '94 on April 13, 1994. Abstracts due November 5, 1993. Contact: Vivienne Hinds, Research Secretary, Faculty of Nursing, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A1. TEL: 416/978-5627 or FAX: 416/978-8222.

Fourth Annual Conference on Aging and Health to be held May 11-13, 1994 in Charlottesville, Va. One session will be sponsored by the University of Virginia Center for Nursing Historical Inquiry. Abstracts due December 3, 1993. Contact: Center for Continuing Nursing Education and Professional Development, University of Virginia School of Nursing, McCleod Hall, Charlottesville, VA 22903-3395. TEL: 804/924-0122.

Qualitative Health Research Conference to be held in Hershey, Pennsylvania during June 10-13, 1994. Abstracts due January 1, 1994. Contact: Dr. Janice Morse, School of Nursing, 307 Health & Human Development East, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802. USA.



The following papers were to be presented in the conference "Women's History and the Politics of Welfare" held at the University of Nottingham, July 1993.

Andrews, Margaret. "A Loss of Place: Shifting Authority in the Vancouver Association of the Victorian Order of Nurses, 1869-1920."

Bassendowski, Sandra. "Looking Back for the Future: Nursing Education in Southern Saskatchewan, Canada."

Beaton, Janet I., and Ina J. Bramadat. "Health Care of Women on Southwest China 1900-1930: An Historical Analysis."

Mansell, Diana. "Leadership Patterns in the History of Nursing: Canada 1919-1949."

McKeever, Patricia. "Maternal Responsibility for the Care of Severely Disabled Children: An Historical Overview."

Splane, Richard, and Verna Huffman Splane. "Ideology, Power and Welfare: The Canadian Case, 1894-1922."

Young, Judith. "A Divine Mission: Elizabeth McMaster and the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, 1875 to 1892."




1-3 October 1993. Tenth Annual Conference of the American Association for the History of Nursing (AAHN) and the University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing, Philadelphia.


13 April 1994. Research '94. Faculty of Nursing, University of Toronto. Contact: Vivienne Hinds (see Call for Abstracts).

10-13 June 1994. Qualitative Health Research Conference sponsored by The Pennsylvania State University. Contact: Eleanor L. Crowder, PhD. TEL: 814/863-2211. (see Call for Abstracts).

17-19 June 1994. CAHN/ACHN Annual Conference and General Meeting to be held in Winnipeg, Manitoba prior to the Canadian Nurses Association meeting. Contact: Ina Bramadat, Faculty of Nursing, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2. TEL: 204/474-6375 or FAX: 204/275-5464.

Fall 1994. Eleventh Annual Conference of AAHN and the University of Arkansas School of Nursing, Little Rock.


June 1995. CAHN/ACHN Annual Conference and Meeting.

Fall 1995. Twelfth Annual Conference of AAHN.


June 1996. CAHN/ACHN Annual Conference and Meeting.

Fall 1996. Thirteenth Annual Conference of AAHN and the Cleveland Clinic Foundation.


"Dix générations de soins infirmiers au Québec, de 1639 à nos jours." A video project of the l'Ordre des infirmières et infirmiers du Québec. FRESIQ (Foundation de recherche en sciences infirmières du Québec) 4 (Mai/juin 1993): [4].



Chesla, Catherine A. "When Qualitative and Quantitative Findings Do Not Converge." Western Journal of Nursing Research 14 (October 1992): 681-685.

Fleming, R. B., ed. Boswell's Children: The Art of the Biographer. Toronto: Dundurn Press,1992.

Hagemaster, Julia Nelson. "Life History: A Qualitative Method of Research." Journal of Advanced Nursing 17 (September 1992): 1122-1128.

Harman, Eleanor and Ian Montagnes, eds. The Thesis and the Book. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1976. [courtesy of Dr. Meryn Stuart].

Keddy, Barbara. "The Coming of Age of Feminist Research in Canadian Nursing." Canadian Journal of Nursing Research 24 (Summer 1992): 5-10.

Miller, Heide S. "Registering the History of Nursing." Image 24 (Fall 1992): 241-245.

Steeves, Richard H. "A Typology of Data Collected in Naturalistic Interviews." Western Journal of Nursing Research 14 (August 1992): 532-536.

Thomas, Sandra P. "Storage of Research Data: Why, How, Where?" Nursing Research 41 (September/October 1992): 309-311.

Webb, Christine. "The Use of the First Person in Academic Writing: Objectivity, Language and Gatekeeping." Journal of Advanced Nursing 17 (June 1992): 747-752.

Wise, Carl, Lisa Ann Plowfield, David L. Kahn and Richard H. Steeves. "Using a Grid for Interpreting and Presenting Qualitative Data." Western Journal of Nursing Research 14 (December 1992): 796-800.



Beginning oral histories undertaken by master graduate students of Dr. Shirley Stinson, Faculty of Nursing, University of Alberta, 1990-1993. The tapes have been placed with the AARN c/o C. Lorraine Mychajlunow, AARN Curator/Archivist, Alberta Association of Registered Nurses, 11620-168th Street, Edmonton, Alberta, T5M 4A6. TEL: 403/451-0043 or FAX: 403/452-3276.




Anderson, Betty


Helen Joyce (Smiley) Nolan's Nursing Training 1949-52 [at University of Alberta Hospitals]

Boyle, Barbara


Dr. Martha Rogers

Ens, Irene


Dorothy Ranks, 1953-1957 [at Ponoka Mental Hospital, Alberta]

Glenns, Ruby


Nellie Beatty, Muriel Shewchuk and Ruby Glenn: Operating Room Nursing, University of Alberta Hospitals 1945-1987

Gutierrez, Rosa


Vera Stelfox 1956-57 [early public health nursing]

Hayes, Eleanor


Miss Jessie Morrison's Military Career: May 1941-December 1945

Jurgens, Patricia


Vivian Martin: Alberta Hospital Registered Psychiatric Nurse Program

Kpinpuo, Theresa


Nursing Curriculum Change in Ghana: The Contribution of Kathleen Dier, 1968-1971

Spady, Barbara


Isobel Reesor English: Public Health Nurse and Educator

Therrien, Luc


Canadian University Nursing Students Association

Thibault-Prevost, Jocelyne

in pro-cess

Canadian Flight Nursing: Major Jackie Brewe

Turner, Kathy


Elizabeth Francis Lamond Patteson Tayler: 1819-1913 [1891-1993?]


Regarding the Canadian involvement in the ICN centennial history project, Meryn Stuart, School of Nursing, University of Ottawa, has clarified her role in the enterprise. She asks that I correct the announcement on p.7 of the March Bulletin. Meryn is "not providing the Canadian content" but is researching and writing the chapter for the years 1923-1937. The book will be "analytic and thematic rather than a chronological description of each country, which would be impossible given 100 years and 106 countries!!" Meryn is willing to receive "information from any Canadians who want to provide ideas and material," however, she is not certain "how many living ICN figures" can be interviewed, given budgetary and time constraints. The project is evolving and is in its early stages. There are four nurse historians and one graduate student on the project: Joan Lynaugh, Nancy Tomes, Anne-Marie Rafferty, Meryn and Barbara Brush.


In response to the review of the book on health care in the Tsarist period, Verna Huffman Splane writes, "when we were in Moscow two years ago, Dr. Galina Perfiljeva in the Ministry of Health told us of a Russian nurse whose work in the Crimea paralleled that of Florence N. So we have gradually been collecting material--hard to find--on Ecatherina Bacounina. F.N. makes some reference to Russian nurses & nursing in her writings without naming any."



Dr. Meryn Stuart sends news of historical happenings at the University of Ottawa:

"As many know, we will commence a new Masters in Nursing Science (with thesis) program . . . in September 1993. This is exciting for all kinds of reasons, but one reason is that I will be supervising history theses!! I want as many nurses as possible to know that there is an opportunity to study the history of nursing at the master's level if they are interested and can meet the criteria for admission to the program. I am especially interested in nurses who have a degree or course work in undergraduate history and want to continue to the master's level." Meryn hopes to have at least one student per year. She will be teaching, also, an elective in the History of Nursing at the Master's level.


Bator, Paul A. Review of For the Least of My Brethren: A Centenary History of St. Michael's Hospital, by Irene McDonald, C.S.J.. In Bulletin (The Canadian Catholic Historical Association), 7 (Spring 1993): 12.

Brodie, Barbara. Review of Pictures of Health: A Photographic History of Health Care in Philadelphia, 1860-1945, by Janet Golden and Charles E. Rosenberg. In Nursing History Review (AAHN), 1 (1993): 250-254.

Bullough, Vern L. Review of As Miss Nightingale Said . . ., ed. Monica Baly. In Nursing History Review (AAHN), 1 (1993): 254-257.

Glass, Laurie K. Review of The Diary of Emily Jane Green Hollister: Her Nursing Experiences, 1888-1911, ed. Deborah D. Smith. In Nursing History Review (AAHN), 1 (1993): 249-250.

Golden, Janet. Review of Bargaining for Life: A Social History of Tuberculosis, 1876-1938, by Barbara Bates. In Nursing History Review (AAHN), 1 (1993): 247-249.

Hamilton, Diane. Review of Women at War: The Story of Fifty Military Nurses Who Served in Vietnam, by Elizabeth Norman. In Nursing History Review (AAHN), 1 (1993): 257-260.

McCarthy, Rosemary T. Review of Nurses of a Different Stripe: A History of the Columbia University School of Nursing, 1892-1992, by Gary Goldenberg. In Bulletin (AAHN), 37 (Winter 1993): 5.

Montag, Mildred L. "A Comment [on] The Origins and Rise of Associate Degree Nursing Education, by Patricia T. Haase. In Nursing History Review (AAHN), 1 (1993): 264-266.

Oderkirk, Wendell. Review of The Origins and Rise of Associate Degree Nursing Education, by Patricia T. Haase. In Nursing History Review (AAHN), 1 (1993): 260-264.

Oderkirk, Wendell. Review of Associate Degree Nursing Education: An Historical Annotated Bibliography, 1942-1983, by Patricia T. Haase. In Nursing History Review (AAHN), 1 (1993): 260-264.

Schissel, Carla M. Review of Black Women in White: Racial Conflict and Cooperation in the Nursing Profession, 1890-1950, by Darlene Clark Hine. In Nursing History Review (AAHN), 1 (1993): 266-269.

Stuart, Meryn E. Review of Clara Barton: Professional Angel, by Elizabeth Brown Pryor. In Nursing History Review (AAHN), 1 (1993): 274-276.



A request from Dr. Shirley Stinson, Professor, Faculty of Nursing, University of Alberta: Jenny Klotz is studying towards a masters thesis on Remote Area Nursing (RAN) in Australia and is interested in obtaining primary and secondary information about remote area nursing in Canada. If you can be of any assistance please contact Jenny directly: Jenny Klotz, Research Assistant, Centre for the History of Remote Area Nursing, University of Central Queensland, Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia 4702.



Abrams, Sarah E. "Dreams and Awakenings: The Rockefeller Foundation and Public Health Nursing Education, 1913-1930." Doctoral diss. University of California, San Francisco, n.d.

Fairman, Julie. "New Hospitals, New Nurses, New Spaces: The Development of Intensive Care, 1950-1965." Ph.D. diss. University of Pennsylvania, c1992.

Walsch, Jacqueline L. "Seeds of Change: The Origin of Associate Degree Nursing at Norfolk State University." Ph.D. diss. University of Virginia, c1992.



The following forums were presented, during 1992-1993, at the Center for Nursing Historical Inquiry:

Brodie, Barbara, PhD. "Fit to an American: Medical Screening of Immigrants at Ellis Island, 1900-1914."

Cargile, Sarah. PhD. "`Giving Birth to Monsters': Anne Hutchinson, a Midwife in Puritan New England."

Cook, Bety. Doctoral Student. "Mistress of the Hospital: Early Nurse Superintendents."

Keeling, Arlene. PhD. "Nursing the Ill and Nurturing Conventional Ideas: Confederate Women's Work During the Civil War.'

Mast, Meryl. MSN. "Tuberculosis Nurses: Educators and Social Nurses for the Poor."

McGehee, Cathy. Doctoral Student. "Nursing in the 1930s: A Microscopic of the Influence of Technology and Economics."

Plowfield, Lisa. PhD. "Birth of `Blue Baby' Nursing: Advances in Cardiac Nursing."

Reel, Sally. Doctoral Student. "The Midnight Calling: Nurse Midwives."

Sepples, Susan. Doctoral Student. "Polio Nursing: The Fight Against Paralysis."

Wasserbauer, Lynn. Doctoral Student. "Western State Hospital: An Example of Physician Influence in the Development of Psychiatric Nursing."



In July 1855, during the Crimea War, Florence Nightingale wrote to her sister, Parthe:

The small still beginning, the simple hardship, the silent gradual struggle upwards, this is the climate in which enterprise really grows and thrives.

M. Baly, As Miss Nightingale Said . . ., 30.



© 2000, The Margaret M Allemang Centre for the History of Nursing