Margaret M Allemang Centre for the History of Nursing
Bulletin
Description Bulletin Archives Membership

 




NUMBER 9

BULLETIN

DECEMBER 1990

Margaret M. Allemang Centre for Nursing History

Editor: Natalie Riegler, RN, PhD. 3 Dromore Crescent, Willowdale, Ontario, M2R 2H4.
TEL: 416-221-5632 E-MAIL: editor@allemang.on.ca.

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BOOK REVIEW: By Joyce MacQueen.

Cadogan, George, ed. Mary Seacole: Jamaican Nightingale. Stratford, Ontario: Williams-Wallace Publishers, 1989. 187 pp. Illus. Originally published: Wonderful Adventures of Mrs. Seacole in Many Lands. London: J. Blackwood, 1857.

Nurses owe thanks to George Cadogan for searching out the autobiography of Mary Seacole, The Wonderful Adventure of Mary Seacole in Many Lands, first published in 1857. In the prologue to the 1989 publication, Mary Seacole: Jamaican Nightingale, Cadogan indicates how hard it was to track down this piece of nursing history which was unknown even to Jamaican nurses.

The life of Mary Seacole, a Creole born in Jamaica, spanned a good part of the nineteenth century, 1805 to 1881. She learned the skills of nursing and inn keeping from her mother, whose inn was popular with many British officers and their wives. She used all these skills and contacts to incredible advantage. She was an entrepreneur, an independent practitioner who often described herself as a `doctress', and a delightful, gutsy, lady. Not only that, Mary Seacole was an exceptional writer. She comes alive in the pages of this book because she writes with such colour and immediacy.

Mary Seacole was an entrepreneur who loved adventure and travel. While she was still single, she supported herself in London for two years by selling her own West Indian preserves and pickles. She travelled to Haiti and Cuba and New Providence, the main island of the Bahamas. From New Providence she brought back beautiful seashells which sold well. After she was widowed, she went to Panama and set up a store/restaurant for the mobs passing through to and from the California gold rush. When she failed in her bid to get the British authorities to sponsor her as a nurse in the Crimea, she spent her life savings ($4,000) on supplies, both medical and comestibles, and set up a successful inn just outside Sebastopol at the battle front.

Mary Seacole was also an independent practitioner. The basic treatments in the care of the ill she learned from her mother, but she never stopped learning. Every epidemic was for her another source of valuable experience. She tried to learn from every physician or surgeon she met. In one instance in the Panama, she even performed a secret autopsy on a young child to see what she could learn about treating the disease. Wherever she went she cared for the ill, charging those who had money and providing services free for those who did not.

In the Crimea, she believed that the provisions sold, especially the home-cooked foods, contributed to the well-being of the soldiers, but that her raison d'être was caring for the sick and wounded. Her daily routine showed that she lived by these priorities. At her hotel, the British Hotel, she saw patients from about nine-thirty to noon every day, visited the hospital over the noon hour, and spent the afternoon caring for the newly wounded. Often she took her field bag of bandages and medicines to the battlefield, and occasionally she worked under fire.

With courage and ingenuity Seacole applied her entrepreneurial skills to her nursing practice. Even today it would be gutsy for a nurses to promote herself the way Seacole did. She sent business cards from England "to her former kind friends, and to the Officers of the Army and Navy generally" (p.85) in the Crimea. On arrival there she sent follow-up announcements. She always carried testimonials to her medical ability and presents them ad infinitum in her book. While she was still living on the boat at Balaclava, she began nursing on the sick wharf. Realizing the importance of attracting the surgeons' attention she says, "I had not neglected my personal appearance, and wore my favourite yellow dress, and blue bonnet, with the red ribbons" (p.100)!

Seacole's work in the Crimea was reported glowingly by the Times reporter who was there, and also was mentioned in Punch. When the war ended, the market for her hotel, supplies and services collapsed, and she arrived back in London broke. However, a subscription list was organized and she was presented with a substantial sum of money. The Duke of Wellington and General Sir John Burgoyne are two of the names on the list. Her humanitarian work was recognized by Turkey and France, but never by the British government.

George Cadogan called Mary Seacole the Jamaican `Nightingale' because there are clear parallels between Seacole and her more famous contemporary. Both were strong women, both went to the Crimea, both had a mission to nurse. And the two in fact met. You must read for yourself Seacole's description of this meeting at the hospital in Scutari. But the contrasts that Cadogan draws are even more significant. For instance, while Nightingale worked in a hospital well

behind the battle lines, Seacole built her own hotel/clinic within sight of the bombardments. In this delightful book Seacole comes across as a welcome antidote to our overdose of Nightingale.


 

ABSTRACTS:

Arseneault, Anne-Marie. "Ça tout commencé avec les lépreux . . ." In CAHN's Third Annual Conference Publication of Proceedings, Calgary, Canada, 1990, by the Canadian Association for the History of Nursing. Canada: CAHN/ACHN, 1990, 47.

Bramadat, Ina J. "Nursing on the Canadian Prairies 1900-1930: Impact of Immigration." In CAHN's Third Annual Conference Publication of Proceedings, Calgary, Canada, 1990, 1.

Edwards, Marie, and Loretta Secco. "An Historical Exploration of the Cultural Revolution of Canadian Nursing During the 1930's." In CAHN's Third Annual Conference Publication of Proceedings, Calgary, Canada, 1990, 2.

Goldstone, Irene. "Reclaiming our Artifacts: Graduation Pins from the Schools of Nursing of British Columbia 1891-1987." In CAHN's Third Annual Conference Publication of Proceedings, Calgary, Canada, 1990, 172.

Healy, Phyllis F. "First in Canada or First in North America? The Early Years of the Mack School of Nursing." In CAHN's Third Annual Conference Publication of Proceedings, Calgary, Canada, 1990, 30.

Kirkwood, Lynn. "Different but Equal: Nurses Survival Tactics in Canadian Universities, 1920-1960." In CAHN's Third Annual Conference Publication of Proceedings, Calgary, Canada, 1990, 119.


 

ARTICLES:

Allemang, Margaret M. "Canadian Nursing Sisters of World War I: Their Lives and Experiences in a Changing Society." In CAHN's Third Annual Conference Publication of Proceedings, Calgary, Canada, 1990, 268-278.

Baumgart, Alice J., and Rondalyn Kirkwood. "Social Reform Versus Education Reform: University Nursing Education in Canada, 1919-1960." Journal of Advanced Nursing 15 (May 1990): 510-516.

Beeber, Linda S. "To Be One of the Boys: Aftershocks of the World War I Nursing Experience." Advances in Nursing Science 12 (1990): 32-43.

Bridges, Jacqueline M. "Literature Review on the Images of the Nurse and Nursing in the Media." Journal of Advanced Nursing 15 (July 1990): 850-854.

Bunting, Sheila, and Jacquelyn C. Campbell. "Feminism and Nursing: Historical Perspectives." Advances in Nursing Science 12 (1990): 11-24.

Caplin, Alice. "Alice A. Girard: Canada's Premier Nurse." In CAHN's Third Annual Conference Publication of Proceedings, Calgary, Canada, 1990, 86-101.

Cortiula, Mark W. "Social Class and Health Care in a Community Institution: The Case of Hamilton City Hospital." Canadian Bulletin of Medical History 6 (Winter 1989): 133-145.

Crowe, Cathy. "Nurses' Experience of the Sexual Division of Labour and the Wartime Mobilization of Nurses During the 1930s and 1940s in Canada." In CAHN's Third Annual Conference Publication of Proceedings, Calgary, Canada, 1990, 11-29.

Dehli, Kari. "`Health Scouts' for the State? School and Public Health Nurses in Early Twentieth-Century Toronto." Historical Studies in Education 2 (Fall 1990): 247-264.

Fitzpatrick, M. Louise. "Lillian D. Wald: Prototype of an Involved Nurse." Imprint 37 (April/May 1990): 92-95.

Fondiller, Shirley. "Back to the Future: Directions for Nursing." Imprint 37 (April/May 1990): 66-67, 69, 71.

Hanson, Karen, Patricia Lingley, and Barbara Keddy. "Direct Patient Contact, the Dilemma for Nursing Leaders: An Historical Perspective." In CAHN's Third Annual Conference Publication of Proceedings, Calgary, Canada, 1990, 198-213.

Hegge, Marge. "In the Footsteps of Florence Nightingale: Rediscovering the Roots of Nursing." Imprint 37 (April/May 1990): 74-77, 79.

Helmstadter, Carol. "Recruitment and Retention in the 19th Century London Hospital: The Roots of an Ongoing Problem." In CAHN's Third Annual Conference Publication of Proceedings, Calgary, Canada, 1990, 2-46.

Henry, Beverly, Stephanie Woods, and Jean Nagelkerk. "Nightingale's Perspective of Nursing Administration." Nursing & Health Care 11 (April 1990): 201-206.

Herrmann, Eleanor. "Why and Where Nurse Historians Congregate." Imprint 37 (April/May 1990): 115-116.

Hibberd, Judith. "Militancy and Organizational Culture in a Nurses' Union." In CAHN's Third Annual Conference Publication of Proceedings, Calgary, Canada, 1990, 173-188.

Keddy, Barbara. "Oral Histories and Nursing: A Study of Thirty-Five Nurses from the 1920s and 1930s." In CAHN's Third Annual Conference Publication of Proceedings, Calgary, Canada, 1990, 89-197.

Keddy, Barbara, and Elaine Shea. "A Nursing Practice from the Past: `Screening-off Death'." In CAHN's Third Annual Conference Publication of Proceedings, Calgary, Canada, 1990, 73-85.

Kerr, Janet Ross, and Pauline Paul. "The Work of the Grey Nuns in Alberta--1859-1899: A Feminist Perspective." In CAHN's Third Annual Conference Publication of Proceedings, Calgary, Canada, 1990, 49-63.

Kerr, Janet Ross, and Pauline Paul. "Called to Care: The Mission of the Grey Nuns in Alberta." In CAHN's Third Annual Conference Publication of Proceedings, Calgary, Canada, 1990, 64-72.

Lippman, Doris Troth. "Early Nursing Textbooks." Imprint 37 (April/May 1990): 109-110, 112.

Marriner-Tomey, Ann. "Historical Development of Doctoral Programs from the Middle Ages to Nursing Education Today." Nursing & Health Care 11 (March 1990): 133-137.

Melosh, Barbara. "Apprenticeship Culture and Nurses' Resistance to Professionalization." In Alternate Conceptions of Work and Society: Implications for Professional Nursing, ed. Carol A. Lindeman, 31-54. Washington, D.C.: American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 1988.

Mitchinson, Wendy. "The Toronto and Gladesville Asylums: Humane Alternatives for the Insane in Canada and Australia?" Bulletin of the History of Medicine (Spring 1989): 52-72.

Olson, Tom. "Competing Paradigms and the St. Luke's Alumnae Association Minutes, 1895-1916." Advances in Nursing Science 12 (1990): 53-62.

Pagliaro, Ann M. "An Analysis of Nursing Leadership Based Upon the Oral Histories of Three Nursing Leaders from Three Continents: North America (Canada), Europe (Scotland), Asia (Israel)." In CAHN's Third Annual Conference Publication of Proceedings, Calgary, Canada, 1990, 102-118.

. "A Historical Analysis of the Relationship Between Modern Nursing Practice and Prevalent Theories of Drug and Substance Abuse." In CAHN's Third Annual Conference Publication of Proceedings, Calgary, Canada, 1990, 142-171.

. "The Writing of the History of Nursing Education in Canada--A Bibliographic Essay of Major Historical Works and Future Directions." In CAHN's Third Annual Conference Publication of Proceedings, Calgary, Canada, 1990, 214-229.

. "Videotaping Oral History: Leadership in Canadian Nursing, The University of Alberta, 1927-1987." In CAHN's Third Annual Conference Publication of Proceedings, Calgary, Canada, 1990, 230-239.

Reverby, Susan M. "The Duty or Right to Care? Nursing and Womanhood in Historical Perspective." In Circles of Care: Work and Identity in Women's Lives, ed. Emily K. Abel and Margaret K. Nelson, 132-149. New York: State University of New York Press, 1990.

Richardson, Sharon. "Historical Policy Research: The Case of Nursing Education Program Articulation in Alberta." In CAHN's Third Annual Conference Publication of Proceedings, Calgary, Canada, 1990, 240-253.

Riegler, Natalie N. "The Study Committee on Nursing Education in Canada: A History of Convergence and Divergence Between the Canadian Nurses Association and the Canadian Medical Association, 1927-1938." In CAHN's Third Annual Conference Publication of Proceedings, Calgary, Canada, 1990, 254-262.

Scholdra, Joanne D. "The Development of a Nursing History Course at the University of Lethbridge and a Survey of Historical Content in Baccalaureate Programs in Canada." In CAHN's Third Annual Conference Publication of Proceedings, Calgary, Canada, 1990, 263-267.

Short, Stephanie D., and Evelyn Sharman. "The Nursing Struggle in Australia." Image 19 (Winter 1987): 197-200.

Stevens, Susan Y. "Sale of the Century: Images of Nursing in the Movietonews During World War II." Advances in Nursing Science 12 (1990): 44-52.

Stuart, Meryn. "Ideology and Experience: Public Health Nursing and the Ontario Rural Child Welfare Project, 1920-25." Canadian Bulletin of Medical History 6 (Winter 1989): 111-131.

Veith, Shirley. "The Beginning of Baccalaureate Nursing Education at the University of Kansas: A Midwestern Experience." Advances in Nursing Science 12 (1990): 63-73.

Whittaker, JoAnn. "A Chronicle of Failure: Gender, Professionalization and the Graduate Nurses' Association of British Columbia, 1912-1935." In CAHN's Third Annual Conference Publication of Proceedings, Calgary, Canada, 1990, 120-141.

Whyte, Norma B. "Provincial Public Health Nursing in British Columbia 1939-1959." In CAHN's Third Annual Conference Publication of Proceedings, Calgary, Canada, 1990, 3-10.


 

LOST AND FOUND:

What do Mary A. MacKenzie, Sarah Ellen Garbutt, Margaret Lowe, Dorothy Mary Baldwin and Matilda Green have in common? They are five World War I Nursing Sisters whose names are inscribed on a memorial tablet in the Ontario Parliament Building. On March 29, 1920, these five nurses from the Ontario Military Hospital in Orpington, England were honoured with the unveiling of the tablet. You can drop by and see it anytime; it is on the second floor just outside the Legislative Chamber.

PUBLISHERS:

Journal of Gender Studies. An "international forum for the debate on gender in all fields of study." For information contact Marion Shaw, Journal of Gender Studies, Department of English, The University, Hull HU6 7RX, England.


 

BOOKS:

Armour, Moira, and Pat Staton. Canadian Women in History: A Chronology. Toronto: Green Dragon Press, 1990.

Baly, Monica E. A History of the Queen's Nursing Institute: 100 Years, 1887-1987. London: Croom Helm, 1987.

Canadian Women's Indexing Group. The Canadian Feminist Thesaurus. Toronto: OISE Press, 1990.

Fildes, Valerie. Wet Nursing: A History from Antiquity to the Present. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1988.

Himmelfarb, Gertrude. The New History and the Old: Critical Essays and Reappraisals. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1987.

Kaufman, Martin, Joellen Watson Hawkins, Loretta P. Higgins, and Alice Howell Friedman, eds. Dictionary of American Nursing Biography. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1988.

Leavitt, Judith Walzer. Brought to Bed: Child-bearing in America 1750-1950. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Light, Beth, and Ruth Roach Pierson, ed. No Easy Road: Women in Canada 1920s to 1960s. Documents in Canadian Women's History, Volume III. Toronto: New Hogtown Press, 1990.

Martin, Theodora Penny. The Sound of Our Own Voices: Women's Study Clubs 1860-1910. Boston: Beacon Press, 1987.

Moore, Judith. A Zeal for Responsibility: The Struggle for Professional Nursing in Victorian England, 1868-1883. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press, 1988.

Vicinus, Martha, and Bea Nergaard, ed. Ever Yours, Florence Nightingale: Selected Letters. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1990.

White, Rosemary. The Effects of the National Health Service on the Nursing Profession, 1948-1961. London: King Edward's Hospital Fund for London, 1985.


 

VIDEO:

National League for Nursing. Nursing in America: A History of Social Reform. Advertisement in Nursing & Health Care 11 (April 1990).


 

MEMORIALS:

Vancouver, B.C.: Nursing Sister Window in the Canadian Memorial Church. Erected in 1928 by Canadian Nursing Sisters of World War I. See Canadian Nurse 86 (June, 1990): 13-14 for more information.


 

NEWS ITEMS:

Registered Nurses' Association of Ontario. "Nursing Archives Review." The R.N.A.O. News 46 (October 1990): 14.

The RNAO has contacted an archival consultant to

"review association material and recommend a strategy including the preparation of a proposal for funding of a permanent nursing archives to be in place by RNAO's 75th anniversary. The Resource Committee was directed to spend a day reviewing and identifying nursing textbooks which are no longer used by members. The committee will also explore markets to sell books.


 

HISTORIOGRAPHY/METHODOLOGY/WRITING:

Church, Olga Maranjian. "Why not a National Library of Nursing?" Western Journal of Nursing Research 11 (June 1989): 382-383.

Gay, Janice T., and Ann E. Edgil. "When Your Manuscript is Rejected." Nursing & Health Care 10 (October 1989): 459-461.

Hoerl-Labrie, Barbara M. "The Electronic Media--A Teaching Strategy for Nursing History." Western Journal of Nursing Research 12 (February 1990): 119-122.

Hughes, Linda. "Professionalizing Domesticity: A Selected Nursing Historiography." Advances in Nursing Science 12 (1990): 25-31.

Sarnecky, Mary T. "Historiography: A Legitimate Research Methodology for Nursing." Advances in Nursing Science 12 (1990): 1-10.

Tornquist, Elizabeth M., and Sandra G. Funk. "How to Write a Research Grant Proposal." Image 22 (Spring 1990): 44-51.

Welch, Marylouise. "Florence Nightingale--The Social Construction of a Victorian Feminist." Western Journal of Nursing Research 12 (June 1990): 404-407.

Wuthnow, Sara. "Our Mothers' Stories." Nursing Outlook 38 (September/October 1990): 218-222.


 

OTHER:

The McGill Centre for Research and Teaching on Women is co-sponsoring a project to produce a categorized and comprehensive annotated bibliography of English and French works by and about Black Women in Canada. Contact: Fabienne Pierre-Jacques, Assistant to the Director, 3520 University, Room 008, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2A7.


 

CLOSING QUOTATION:

Nursing is rooted in the needs of humanity and is founded on the ideal of service. Its object is not only to cure the sick and heal the wounded but to bring health and ease, rest and comfort to mind and body, to shelter, nourish, and protect and to minister to all those who are helpless or handicapped, young, aged or immature. Bertha Harmer. The Principles and Practice of Nursing, 1922, p.3.

 


 

As we move into a new year may you find your inner bliss and time to read, research and right nursing history.


 


 

© 2000, The Margaret M Allemang Centre for the History of Nursing